Vaccine and Pertussis Spreads

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Vaccine and Pertussis Spreads Essay

Shaala D. Kirkby K. Burgan Medical Billing & Coding Specialist 12 September 2011 Pertussis Whooping cough, which is also known as, Pertussis, is caused by infection by the Bordetella Pertussis bacteria. A highly contagious bacterial disease affects the respiratory system and produces spasms of coughing that usually end in a high-pitched whooping sound. Vaccine and Pertussis Spreads Essay. Pertussis spreads faster in Hispanics and Asians, then in Caucasians, African Americans, and Persians. But Caucasians, African Americans and Persians are more likely to die from Pertussis, then Hispanics and Asians; doctors have not figured out why.

Bordetella Pertussis the bacteria invades the nose and throat and then the trachea followed by the bronchial tubes of the lungs causes’ pertussis. People usually contract the bacteria through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Then people inhale or been exposed to the infected saliva. People who have been immunized in the past may still develop infection but it is usually uncommon or very mild that is another cause of whooping cough. Vaccine and Pertussis Spreads Essay.

“The incubation period is usually about 4 – 21 days. ” (CDC, 2011) Pertussis is a round-shaped gram-positive bacterium.

Some of the symptoms of Pertussis include runny nose, coughing that may be dry or may produce phlegm. Along with a fever typically 102°F or higher. Severe coughing attacks that ends in a high-pitched crowing sound when inhaling or it will end in a high-pitched “whoop”. The coughing spells may end in a brief loss of consciousness and or vomiting. It also results in difficulty at breathing. It also can cause some people to have diarrhea. “When some small infants have, long spells of coughing, usually begin to cry which causes them to choke on their own tears. ” (California Public Health, 2010)

DTaP can treat pertussis, which is a vaccine that protects children, newborn to 18 years old against the disease. During epidemics, health care providers or others at risk may be advised to receive a booster dose of the vaccine. The immunization is not 100 percent effective and has slowly becomes less effective over the past few years. Some tests that can be performed to tell if a person has contracted are to take a culture of the secretions from the nose, mouth, and throat. “A complete blood count or CBC, which measures the number of red blood cells and white blood cells in the blood.

If there is an elevated number of white blood cell count characterized by large numbers of lymphocytes. ” (Med-line Plus, 2009) The treatments include Erythromycin, which is an antibiotic that is administered and may shorten the duration of the symptoms. Infants less than 18 months of age require constant supervision because breathing may temporarily stop during spells of sever coughing. Infants with severe cases should be hospitalized. “An oxygen tent with high humidity may be used. ” (CDC, 2011) Intravenous fluid may be given if coughing spells are severe enough to prevent enough fluid intakes by mouth. Vaccine and Pertussis Spreads Essay.

Sedatives may also be prescribed for young children. Cough suppressants are usually not helpful and should not be used. Once the whooping stage begins, antibiotics are of no use. The prognosis for a person who leaves Pertussis untreated in infants has a poor outcome. “The disease has a one percent to two percent death rate. Death may occur from lack of oxygen to the brain and bronchopneumonia. ” (Iowa Public Health, 2010) Some other complications that may occur are; apnea, epistaxis, and pneumonia, convulsions that are caused by hypoxia can cause permanent brain damage.

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Some of the more serious effects are cerebral hemorrhage, seizures, and developmental retardation. “In California has already sickened more than 5,270 infants and killed nine, in 2010, the highest record since 1955. ” (Steven Reinberg, HealthDay 2010) CDC recommends that, “all adults 18-64 in contact with infants or working in health care receive a TDap within two years of their last tetanus vaccination, and that other adults in the same age range be offered the vaccine 10 years or more after their last tetanus shot. ” (CDC, 2011) I hink that perhaps in third world countries it may be a ramped problem do to the fact that most people are not vaccinated against it . Vaccine and Pertussis Spreads Essay.Even then, the only people who are usually affected by the disease are children under 2 years old. They are the main targets of this disease because they do not have adequate immune systems to fight of the bacteria. Now maybe back in the 1900’s Whooping cough would have been an epidemic because of their very limited amount of technology and they would not have known how to treat the disease or how to contain it.

Despite out new technology, get a grasp on Pertussis, it seems to spread even if a person has been vaccinated. Curious enough that the schools have started vaccinating for Pertussis and started giving out the shot like it was candy, not even worried about the effect that it would have on the population of school kids that have had the shot. Some case kids that have had “Whooping Cough” are being re-vaccinated and some children are having reaction to the shot. When I think of Whooping cough, I do not think of it as a major epidemic.

I suppose that if five thousand out of every billion people are infected with it then it must not be a very large problem. The disease does not too seem to have very severe side effects if it is left untreated. Parents should be aware of this and should not allow themselves to be forced into immunizing their children. They should know that it is always “their” choice. Finally, once patients are educated and more and more people request exemptions, action can be taken. Vaccine and Pertussis Spreads Essay.

The solution is not to eliminate vaccines altogether, vaccines continue to have incredible health benefits. Rather, the medical and pharmaceutical profession should stop thinking of vaccines as magic potions, and instead should take a serious look at the problems presented above. When the government sees that exemptions are being requested and that the issues are being spoken about, perhaps it will be encouraged to improve current methods that are harmful to the environment and to people.

Re-evaluation of the vaccination system can take place, with a focus on fixing any inherent problems, and with any luck, efforts will result in a healthier, safer world. WORK CITED 1). CDC, “Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination”, (July, 2011), September 1, 2011 ; http://www. cdc. gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/pertussis/;. 2). California Public Health, “Cases of Pertussis (Whooping Cough)”, (2010), August 29, 2011 ;http://www. cdph. ca. gov/healthinfo/discond/pages/pertussis. aspx; 3).

Med-Line Plus, “Pertussis”, (November 2, 2009), August 30, 2011 ; http://www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001561. htm; 4). Iowa Public Health, “Pertussis Outbreak Management Through Epidemiological Principles”, PowerPoint, pages 39, (2008), August 27, 2011 ;http://www. idph. state. ia. us/adper/ pertussis. asp; 5). Steven Reinberg, HealthDay, “Whooping cough outbreaks show many not vaccinated”, (October 17, 2010), September 3, 2011 ; http://www. usatoday. com/yourlife/health/medical/2010-10-17-whooping-cough_N. htm; Vaccine and Pertussis Spreads Essay.

Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. In 2018, there were more than 151 000 cases of pertussis globally.

Pertussis spreads easily from person to person mainly through droplets produced by coughing or sneezing. The disease is most dangerous in infants, and is a significant cause of disease and death in this age group.

The first symptoms generally appear 7 to 10 days after infection. They include a mild fever, runny nose and cough, which in typical cases gradually develops into a hacking cough followed by whooping (hence the common name of whooping cough). Pneumonia is a relatively common complication, and seizures and brain disease occur rarely.

People with pertussis are most contagious up to about 3 weeks after the cough begins, and many children who contract the infection have coughing spells that last 4 to 8 weeks. Antibiotics are used to treat the infection. Vaccine and Pertussis Spreads Essay.