The Needs of a Child Aged 5-12 Years Old

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The Needs of a Child Aged 5-12 Years Old: Physical Assessment.

The needs of the pediatric patient differ depending on age, as do the stages of development and the expected assessment findings for each stage. In a 500-750-word paper, examine the needs of a school-aged child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old and discuss the following: 1. Compare the physical assessments among school-aged children. Describe how you would modify assessment techniques to match the age and developmental stage of the child.The Needs of a Child Aged 5-12 Years Old: Physical Assessment. 2. Choose a child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old. Identify the age of the child and describe the typical developmental stages of children that age. 3. Applying developmental theory based on Erickson, Piaget, or Kohlberg, explain how you would developmentally assess the child. Include how you would offer explanations during the assessment, strategies you would use to gain cooperation, and potential findings from the assessment.

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Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.The Needs of a Child Aged 5-12 Years Old: Physical Assessment.

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The needs of the pediatric patient differ depending on age, as do the stages of development and the expected assessment findings for each stage. In a 500-750-word paper, examine the needs of a school-aged child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old and discuss the following:

  1. Compare the physical assessments among school-aged children. Describe how you would modify assessment techniques to match the age and developmental stage of the child.The Needs of a Child Aged 5-12 Years Old: Physical Assessment.
  2. Choose a child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old. Identify the age of the child and describe the typical developmental stages of children that age.
  3. Applying developmental theory based on Erickson, Piaget, or Kohlberg, explain how you would developmentally assess the child. Include how you would offer explanations during the assessment, strategies you would use to gain cooperation, and potential findings from the assessment.
    Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.The Needs of a Child Aged 5-12 Years Old: Physical Assessment.
    This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
    You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

Children in the 5-12 years age bracket are school-going children. They are in the developmental stage that is between preschoolers and adolescents. Physical examination or assessment is done on these children as well as the others in the other age groups and developmental stages for various reasons. It may be that they have been brought to a well-baby clinic, or that they are sick and are about to be admitted (Nurse Key, n.d.). Whatever the reason, it is essential to be aware of the child’s needs according to their age and developmental stage. This is what will inform the care panning for the child after getting the appropriate subjective and objective information from the assessment. This discussion examines the physical assessment of school-going children (5-12 years old), presents a case example, and looks at a developmental theory that may be used to explain the developmental assessment of a child.The Needs of a Child Aged 5-12 Years Old: Physical Assessment.

Physical Assessment Among School-Aged Children

Physical assessment among school-aged children is different from that of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. This is because unlike these preceding developmental stages and age groups, the school-going child has begun to appreciate and understand reality as opposed to fantasy. According to theorist Jean Piaget, their thought processes at this developmental stage can be referred to as ‘concrete operations’. What this means is that school-aged children are able to think logically and comprehend the effect of an action or its consequences (Leifer, 2019). Their reasoning is more advanced since they have started interacting with other people in the outside world. Age 5-12 is also the time when the child is very eager to learn new things, accomplish tasks, and be appreciated. According to the developmental theorist Erik Erikson, the children at this age are in the ‘stage of industry,’ and this explains their industrious nature. (Leifer, 2019).The Needs of a Child Aged 5-12 Years Old: Physical Assessment. At this developmental stage, the child is able to give a proper and accurate account of their illness and this is why they should also be interviewed as well as the parent or guardian who brought them to be seen (Hairfield & McCormick, 2017). Modification of techniques to match the age and developmental stage of the child in this stage therefore involves equally questioning the child in addition to the parent/ guardian, asking the child questions they can answer (especially about school, their performance, and their friends), and examining the child as thoroughly as an adult since they can cooperate well during the procedure.The Needs of a Child Aged 5-12 Years Old: Physical Assessment.

A Case Example

Patient N.M. is a seven-year-old boy who was brought by his mother for a normal medical check-up at the wellness clinic. She is a child whose birth was normal and devoid of complications. Her birth weight was 3.25 kg with an Apgar score of 9. She received all the required immunizations and has only been admitted twice since birth for scalding and an allergic reaction to a medication. She is a child who is developing normally and achieving all the developmental milestones expected of her. These typical developmental stages or milestones of a child at this age include (CDC, 2020):

Cognitive development
Can vividly describe thoughts and feelings, appreciates the thoughts and concerns of others, and demonstrates faster maturity in terms of mental skills.

Social and emotional development
Craves for more acceptance by friends and other people, begins to exercise more independence, begins to appreciate more what friendship is, and starts to appreciate the abstract concept of existence.The Needs of a Child Aged 5-12 Years Old: Physical Assessment.

Motor development
Has good motor coordination and is able to perform simple gymnastics.

Applying Jean Piaget’s Thoughts in the Developmental Assessment of a School-Age Child

Jean Piaget was the scholar who came up with the theory of cognitive development. This theory suggests that cognitive development in a child is a process that takes place gradually as the child interacts with its environment. The four stages of Piaget’s cognitive development model are (i) sensorimotor which starts from birth to 2 years, (ii) preoperational which is from one and a half years to age seven, (iii) concrete operational which is between ages 7 to eleven years, and (iv) formal operational which is from age 12 to 19 years (McLeod, 2018; Carey et al., 2015).The Needs of a Child Aged 5-12 Years Old: Physical Assessment.

Based on Piaget’s theory, this child would be developmentally assessed based on the concrete operational stage which is stage three in the above cognitive development theory. Given that this stage states that the child between 7-11 years old has developed operational thought or logical thinking, the developmental assessment will focus more on asking the child more pointed and specific questions that the mother may not answer with certainty. The strategy to gain cooperation during the assessment would be to ask the child about school, their friends, and what they like. Explanations would be offered through simple but logical explanations since the child already has developed logical thought processes. Potential findings for patient N.M. are expected to be normal, since the visit was a well child appointment.

Conclusion

Children undergo definite and specific developmental milestones that must be appreciated by the nurse to enable them understand the needs and problems of children of different ages. Among the developmental theorists is Jean Piaget who came up with the theory of cognitive development. Using this theory, one can apply its concepts to help in developmentally assessing any child, such as a 7 year-old falling under the school-age bracket of 7-12 year-olds.The Needs of a Child Aged 5-12 Years Old: Physical Assessment.

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