Supervision in Nursing Practice Essay
In this study, regarding level of first line managers
knowledge regarding clinical supervision thorough program, the research findings showed that overall level of first line managers knowledge improved with the program immediately and after 3 months of program. It could be inferred that the teaching program helped first line managers to improve their knowledge in clinical supervision and this improvement in knowledge can be influenced by the rate of memorization, ability of knowledge acquisition, the accumulation of learned knowledge of life, and the refreshing information using different approach of active learning during implementation of program. Supervision in Nursing Practice Essay. This result was supported by Abd El-Aziz (2009), who found a significant improvement in head nurses’ knowledge after attending educational program and emphasized the importance of educational opportunities to strengthen and update their knowledge and improve the quality of care. Moreover El-Sayed, (2010), indicated that there were marked improvement of the level of knowledge attainment from the pretest, immediate, and two months post – tests.
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The foregoing findings were agreed with the findings of El-Shahat (2014) who conducted a study entitled ” The Effectiveness of Implementing Clinical Supervision Models on Head Nurses’ Performance and Nurses’ Job Satisfaction” and showed that there was a highly significant improvement of head nurses and their assistants’ knowledge and responsibility perception related to clinical supervision pre, immediate, and three months post program implementation. Also, Al Zeney et al. (2017) who conducted a study entitled ” Effect of Clinical Supervision Training Program for Nurse Managers on Quality of Nursing Care in Intensive Care Units” found a statistical significant differences and marked improvement in nurse managers total knowledge regarding clinical supervision as the highest percentage of them had high score immediately post program, and 3 months post program compared to preprogram. Regarding to first line managers’ performance regarding clinical supervision, the results of the present study showed that there were a highly significant improvement in first line managers’ performance regarding all models of clinical supervision (Normative (managerial skills), Formative (educational skills) and Restorative (supportive skills) throughout the three phases of the program; pre, immediate post program, and follow up after three months. Supervision in Nursing Practice Essay.
This improvement can be due to effect of educational clinical supervision program on first line managers’ performance as it improved the head nurses and their assistants’ supervising ability to function in their role and promote units supervision where they learned how to be effective leader, gained experiences in helping nurses how to apply technical skills in different clinical situations and in using different educational strategies in guiding their staff and acquired skills related to encouraging effective communication and team work among nurses and supporting nurse – patient caring relationship. In similar study of Al Zeney etal. (2017) it was noticed that there was a marked improvement in nurse manager’s clinical supervision competencies immediately post program and three months post program compared to before implementation. This was supported by Sirola- Karvinen and Pirjo, et al. , (2008) who conducted a study entitled “Administrative clinical supervision as evaluated by the first-line managers in one health care organization district” and found that the supervision program succeeded very well and significant improvement in level of nurse unit mangers responsibility as supervisors. Additionally, this result was compatible with Abd – El-Halem (2013) and Fulton et al. , (2014) who found a highly statistically significant improvement in nurses’ knowledge immediately after program implementation, as significant differences were found between the mean pre and post – test knowledge score, and mentioned that the educational program was effective in improving head nurses and knowledge and performance related to clinical supervision. Moreover, this result was in agreement with El-Shahat (2014) who reported that there was a high statistical significant improvement in the performance head nurses and their assistants’ clinical supervision performance in pre, immediate post program and follow up after program.
In the same respect Sharif and Masoumi (2014) reported that some of the head nurses (nursing unit manager) and staff nurses were very good in supervising in the clinical area. The head nurse can play an important role in nurses’ self-confidence, promote role socialization, and encourage independence which leads to clinical competency. Supervision in Nursing Practice Essay.While this result is contrary with El-Deghaidy and Nouby (2008) who found no significant statistical relation between head nurses’ clinical supervision knowledge and practices scores. Concerning staff nurses’ career adaptability thorough program, the results of the present study revealed that there was a highly statistical significant improvement in staff nurses` level of career adaptability regarding dimensions (concern, control, confidence and curiosity) immediate post program three months follow up the program compared to preprogram scores. This result could be explained in the light of the positive impact of the clinical supervision training program on quality of nursing care among staff nurses, as well as the improvement in the effectiveness of clinical supervision practices of their nurse managers which increase staff nurses’ ability to adapt with and manage career changes and challenges in different situations for personnel and organizational development.
This was supported by Bocciardi (2017) who confirmed that training and career-development professionals can improve their understanding of which career-related skills and attitudes can increase one’s capability to cope with sudden changes and instability of the current labour market. As well as, the current study finding was on the same line with Koen et al. ( 2012) who conducted a study entitled ” Training career adaptability to facilitate a successful school-to-work transition ” and reported that the effects of the career adaptability training were investigated immediately after the training and six months later as the results showed that the development of career adaptability was significantly different for the training group as compared to the control group: the training group had increased in concern, control and curiosity, whereas the control group had not increased in concern andhad even decreased in control and curiosity. The results of the present study demonstrated that there was a highly statistical positive correlation between first line managers’ clinical supervision performance and their years of experience and education qualification. this might be due to high-qualified head nurses with increased years of experience practice clinical supervision effectively as they exposed to different work conditions and acquired more experiences regarding how to supervise nursing work and this was confirmed through their academic education. This result was incongruent El-Deghaidy and Nouby (2008) who said that there were no significant statistical relation between demographic data, head nurses’ knowledge and practices scores as regards to clinical supervision. While El-Shahat (2014) found that there was highly statistical significant relation between head nurses and their assistants’ level of knowledge and department, age, qualification and years of experience. Supervision in Nursing Practice Essay.
Furthermore, the results of the present study indicated that there was a highly statistical positive correlation between staff nurses’ career adaptability and their years of experience and education qualification. From the research opinions, when nurses have high education with increased years of experience, this enable them how to adapt with their work as they possessed the required resources that function as self-regulation strategies which give them an opportunity to broaden, refine and eventually implement their self-concepts in occupational roles, thereby creating their work lives and building their careers. This was confirmed by McMahon etal. (2012) who conducted a study regarding ” Career adaptability: A qualitative understanding from the stories of older women” and explored how this group of women who had more years of experience coped with and adapted to changes and transitions related to career. As regard to correlation between clinical supervision performance and career adaptability.
The results showed that there was a highly statistical positive correlation between first line managers’ clinical supervision performance and staff nurses’ career adaptability. This could be inferred that the clinical supervision program was successful in improving first line managers’ knowledge and performance related to clinical supervision models related to supervision through learning, supporting and facilitating nurses’ career adaptability under changing circumstances. This result was supported by Abo Hashish (2010) who conducted a study entitled “Effect of clinical supervision training program for first-line nurse managers on quality of care and job satisfaction” and found that, there was a positive effect of clinical supervision training program for first-line nurse managers on quality of care and job satisfaction. 5. Recommendations The findings of the study suggest that:
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Hospital administration should conduct workshops for increasing awareness of head nurses about clinical supervision models and how to apply them in work field.
Providing continuous in-service training and education programs for increasing skills of head nurses, supervisors and staff nurses regarding supervision.
Setting clear responsibilities for both nursing supervisor and supervisee through a constructive clinical supervision policies and procedures. Supervision in Nursing Practice Essay.
Providing supportive healthy work environment that help nurses to reflect on their personal and professional work related issues with their clinical supervisors that help in enhancing their career adaptability.
Integrating career adaptability in nursing education.
Further research should be made to measure and investigate Adaptive behaviors such as career planning, self-efficacy and career exploration.
Conclusions: There was a highly statistical significant improvement in first line managers’ knowledge and performance regarding clinical supervision immediate post program and three months follow up the program compared to preprogram scores. There was a highly statistical significant improvement in staff nurses’ level of career adaptability immediate post program and three months follow up the program compared to preprogram scores. In addition, there was a highly statistical positive correlation between first line managers’ clinical supervision performance and staff nurses’ career adaptability. Supervision in Nursing Practice Essay.