Structural Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

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Structural Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.

All living organisms belong to either the eukaryotes or prokaryotes group but the cellular structure differentiates the two groups. The main distinguishing difference is that cells of eukaryotes have membrane-bound organelles, like the nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, etc., whereas the cells of prokaryotic do not have membrane-bound organelles(Nilkanta&Bagchi, 2018). The nucleus in the eukaryote cells holds the DNA. Additionally, while eukaryotic cells have numerous chromosomes that undergo mitosis and meiosis during cell division, prokaryotic cells have only one circular chromosome. The genetic material in prokaryotic cells is located within the circular DNA pieces(Nilkanta&Bagchi, 2018).Structural Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.


The cells of eukaryotes have bigger and more complex ribosomes that are bound by a membrane. The ribosomes can be located in the cytoplasm, on the nuclear membrane, or on the endoplasmic reticulum. Eukaryotes in plant cells contain chloroplasts. On the other hand, the ribosomes in the prokaryote cells are floating freely and scattered throughout the cytoplasm and the ribosomes have small subunits when compared to the eukaryote cells (Nilkanta&Bagchi, 2018).Structural Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.

Another structural difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the cell wall. The cell of prokaryotes has a rigid wall surrounding the plasma membrane and provides the shape of an organism (Yamaguchi et al., 2013). However, vertebrates which are eukaryotes do not have cell walls but eukaryotic plants have a cell wall. Moreover, the cell walls in prokaryotes vary chemically when compared to the eukaryotic cell walls of plant cells, which mainly consist of cellulose. For instance, the cell walls of bacteria consist of peptidoglycans (amino acids and sugar).Structural Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.