Schizotypal and Narcissistic Personality Disorders

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Schizotypal and Narcissistic Personality Disorders Essay.

Schizotypal is a Cluster A personality disorder. It is characterized by unusual behavior, appearance, thought patterns and lack of social skills (Wood 2001). Schizotypal personality disorder is marked by an inability and acute discomfort for forming close relationships (APA 2000). It also involves having cognitive and perceptual distortions (Fundukian 2008) and displaying eccentricities of behavior (APA 2000). Schizotypal also involves odd, coherent, but unimportant speech (Fundukian 2008).


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The symptoms for Schizotypal Personality are listed in the DSM-IV-TR as follows: * Ideas of reference or incorrect interpretations of events- Individuals may have difficulty seeing the correct cause, and effect of situations and how they affect others. They also interpret and believe events as having a particular and unusual meaning. * Odd beliefs or magical thinking- Individuals may be superstitious or preoccupied with the paranormal. They believe in the “sixth sense. ” * Unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily illusions- Individuals may believe they have special powers like being able to read thoughts or predict the future. Odd thinking and speech- Individuals may have speech patterns that seem strange and confusing. * Suspiciousness or paranoid thoughts- Individual are often suspicious of others and thus display paranoid tendencies. Schizotypal and Narcissistic Personality Disorders Essay.* Inappropriate or constricted affect- Individuals act inappropriate or stiff when trying to form relationships. * Behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric, or peculiar- Individuals have unusual manners and are often unkempt. * Lack of close friends or confidants- Individual prefer keeping to themselves, they feel uncomfortable relating to other people. Excessive social anxiety- Individuals feel anxious around unfamiliar people, but may not diminish with familiarity. Anxiety is more associated with paranoia and suspiciousness (APA 2000). The exact cause for Schizotypal personality disorder is still unknown, however, some believe genes are involved and the disorder may be passed down (Psychology Today 2011). It is also believed that it is a result of cause and effect. Usually parents were emotionally distant, formal, and displayed confusing parental communication. They may have also been humiliated resulting in relational mistrust (Fundukian 2008).



Treatments for Schizotypal personality disorder may differ. Schizotypal patients rarely enter treatment, because they find it difficult to engage and would rather seek relief from depressive problems (Psychology Today 2011). However, some may seek treatment, and a number of Psychotherapies can be done to help the patient. Different psychotherapies are listed in The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Health as being able to help with Schizotypal. These are: * Cognitive-behavioral therapy- This includes communication skills training, the use of videotape feedback to help perceive the behavior and appearance objectively, and practical suggestions. Psychodynamically oriented therapy- This therapy seeks to build a therapeutically trusting relationship that will counter the mistrust. * Interpersonal therapy- The goal is to develop trust to help the patient gain insight into the distorted and magical thinking they have. Self-talk is sometimes introduced to orient the patient to reality-based experiences. * Group therapy- The goal is to provide the patient with a socializing experience that will expose them to feedback. If therapy does not work for the patient, medications like antipsychotics can be given to control certain symptoms of schizotypal personality disorder (Fundukian 2008).Schizotypal and Narcissistic Personality Disorders Essay.

Narcissistic is a Cluster B personality disorder. It is characterized by erratic, overly dramatic behavior (Wood 2001). Narcissistic personality disorder is marked by a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, constant need for admiration, and a lack of empathy for others (APA 2000). People with this disorder may be cocky, self-centered, manipulative, arrogant, and demanding. They may concentrate on outcomes that are unlikely, such as fame, and they may also think they deserve special treatment (Psychology Today 2011).Schizotypal and Narcissistic Personality Disorders Essay.

According to The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders psychiatrists have divided narcissism into two subtypes (2008). * Age group subtypes- Is those who suffer from a stable form of narcissism, typically young adults, whose disorder can be corrected by life experiences. This group tries to find out whether it is a character disorder or if it is a matter of learned behavior that can be undone. * Personality subtypes- This subtype was developed because they noted that patients reflected different cluster traits. Psychiatrists then listed them into four subcategories. Craving narcissists are people who feel emotionally needy and undernourished, and may appear clingy or demanding to those around them. * Paranoid narcissists feel intense contempt for themselves, but project it outward onto others. They frequently drive people away by hypercritical and jealous comments and behaviors. * Manipulative narcissists obtain their feelings of superiority by lying and manipulating. * Phallic narcissists tend to be aggressive, athletic, and exhibitionistic; they enjoy showing off everything about them. They are mainly male. Fundukian 2008). The symptoms for narcissistic personality disorder are listed in the DSM-IV-TR as follows: * They have a grandiose sense of self-importance. They overestimate themselves and inflate achievements and talents, and they are often boastful and pretentious. * They are preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love. * Believes that they are special and unique and can only be understood by, or should be associated with, other special or high-status people. * They require excessive praise an admiration.Schizotypal and Narcissistic Personality Disorders Essay.

A need to be the center of attention, and requires constant attention and positive reinforcement. * They have a sense of entitlement. They expect special favorable treatment or automatic compliance. * They are interpersonally exploitive. They take advantage of others to achieve their goals; assessment of others in terms of usefulness. * They lack empathy. They are unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others. * They are often envious of others or believes others are envious of them. * They show arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes. APA 2000) The causes of Narcissistic personality disorder are not well understood. Some believe genes play a significant role, while others have three main theories (Fundukian 2008). The first theory is that people develop into narcissists because of self-reflection on largely heritable traits (psychology today 2011). This happens when an emotionally hungry and angry child withdraws into a part of the self that parents value. This part then becomes hyperinflated and grandiose (Fundukian 2008). Another theory is that all infants pass through primary narcissism where they assume they are the center of the universe.

The problem is if parents fail to provide appropriate opportunities for idealization and mirroring, such as gaining approval, that child will remain in the developmental stage in which their sense remains grandiose and unrealistic. The third theory is that the environment in which a person grows up in may influence narcissism. These may be cultural factors, such as the mass media, social trends, and social approval (Fundukian 2008). Treatment for Narcissistic personality disorder is especially hard. Clinical treatment is rare because they hardly enter or remain in treatment.Schizotypal and Narcissistic Personality Disorders Essay.

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