Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study

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Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study

Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study

Understanding women’s and men’s health is critical for the clinician in order that they can make the correct diagnosis when any patient presents with specific signs and symptoms. This is because the signs and symptoms may not directly point at infection of the reproductive organs at the time, but may actually be a consequence of previous infection. Also, the immune system and hematologic parameters may provide an indication as to what exactly may have been the precipitating factor in terms of the reproductive health of the patient. This paper is about a case study of a 14 year-old female adolescent recovering from infectious mononucleosis (mono) and encompasses the points stated above.Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

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Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) as Factors Affecting Fertility

Sexually transmitted infections or STIs affect the reproductive tract and may leave long-lasting scars and footprints. Some of these infections are able to ascend upwards along the reproductive tract and cause inflammation and scarring in the Fallopian tubes. This is tubal factor infertility and results from STIs that are not treated promptly. Examples of STIs responsible for this kind of tubal factor infertility are gonorrhoea and chlamydia, caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis respectively. Infertility has been defined as the inability on the part of the female to conceive naturally within at least one year of consistent unprotected sexual intercourse (Tsevat et al., 2017).Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

Reason for Rise in Inflammatory Markers in STIs and/ or Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

The reason for the rise in inflammatory markers in STIs/ PID can be stated as being a normal inflammatory response. This is especially true for the nonspecific inflammatory markers erythrocyte sedimentation rate or ESR and the C-reactive protein or CRP. However, the other inflammatory marker that studies have shown to be predictive and diagnostic of PID is the CA-125 protein. Normally, the CA-125 marker is elevated in ovarian cancer, but it has been demonstrated that in the absence of ovarian cancer this marker is diagnostic of PID. And as mentioned earlier, the most notorious STIs that elicit an elevation in ESR, CRP, and CA-125 are chlamydia and gonorrhea (Park et al., 2017).

The Reason for Prostatitis and Infection Happening with Systemic Reaction

Literature that is available shows that the occurrence of infection in prostatitis results from the leakage of bacteria from the urinary tract into the prostatic parenchyma. The bacteria then infect the prostatic cells resulting in inflammation and its accompanying cardinal signs of pain, redness, heat, swelling, and loss of function. Left untreated, the symptoms generalize and become systemic because of tissue invasion away from the primary site of infection (MFMER, 2020; Hammer & McPhee, 2018).Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

Why a Patient Needs a Splenectomy After Diagnosis with Immune Thrombocytopenia or ITP

Thrombocytopenia or a low platelet count in ITP is caused by autoantibody production in the spleen and platelet clearance from the same organ. There are many medical therapies (like rituximab) for the condition to help reduce the tendency to bleed from thrombocytopenia (as may be the case with the 14 year-old teenager in the case study). However, in patients who cannot tolerate the medications or in whom the medications are not effective, splenectomy is the next option. It removes the autoantibody source as well as the sequestration center for platelets (Chaturvedi et al., 2018).Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

Different Kinds of Anemia

Anemia is the deficiency of the protein hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is carried in erythrocytes. Types of anemia include iron-deficiency anemia, pernicious anemia, haemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, sickle-cell anemia, and vitamin deficiency anemia (Hammer & McPhee, 2018).Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

Conclusion

Both men and women are affected by reproductive health problems. These may be tied to other systemic manifestations which may provide a clue as to the diagnosis.

An understanding of the factors surrounding women’s and men’s health, infections, and hematologic disorders can be critically important to disease diagnosis and treatment in these areas. This importance is magnified by the fact that some diseases and disorders manifest differently based on the sex of the patient.

Effective disease analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond the human systems involved. The impact of patient characteristics, as well as racial and ethnic variables, can also have an important impact..

An understanding of the symptoms of alterations in systems based on these characteristics is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For APRNs, this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify the elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.

To prepare:

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study scenario for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)

In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following:

The factors that affect fertility (STDs).
Why inflammatory markers rise in STD/PID.
Why prostatitis and infection happens. Also explain the causes of systemic reaction.
Why a patient would need a splenectomy after a diagnosis of ITP.
Anemia and the different kinds of anemia (i.e., micro and macrocytic).

Day 7 of Week 10

Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 10

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates). All papers submitted must use this formatting.Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

NURS_6501_Module7_Case Study_Assignment_Rubric
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Develop a 1- to 2-page case study analysis, examining the patient symptoms presented in the case study. Be sure to address the following:Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.
Explain the factors that affect fertility (STDs)–

Excellent 23 (23%) – 25 (25%)

The response accurately and thoroughly describes the patient symptoms.

The response includes accurate, clear, and detailed explanations of the processes related to women’s and men’s health, infections, and hematologic disorders and is supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

Good 20 (20%) – 22 (22%)

The response describes the patient symptoms.

The response includes accurate, explanations of the processes related to women’s and men’s health, infections, and hematologic disorders and is supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.

Fair 18 (18%) – 19 (19%)

The response describes the patient symptoms in a manner that is vague or inaccurate.

The response includes explanations of the processes related to women’s and men’s health, infections, and hematologic disorders, with explanations that are vague or based on inappropriate evidence/research.Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

Poor 0 (0%) – 17 (17%)

The response describes the patient symptoms in a manner that is vague and inaccurate, or the description is missing.

The response does not include explanations of the processes related to women’s and men’s health, infections, and hematologic disorders, or the explanations are vague or based on inappropriate evidence/research.Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

Explain why inflammatory markers rise in STD/PID–
Excellent 18 (18%) – 20 (20%)

The response includes an accurate, complete, detailed, and specific analysis of the concepts and principles of pathophysiology across the life span and is supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.

Good 16 (16%) – 17 (17%)

The response includes an accurate analysis of the concepts and principles of pathophysiology across the life span and is supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

Fair 14 (14%) – 15 (15%)

The response includes a vague or inaccurate analysis of the concepts and principles of pathophysiology across the life span or is supported by evidence and/or research that is inappropriate.Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

Poor 0 (0%) – 13 (13%)

The response includes a vague or inaccurate analysis of the concepts and principles of pathophysiology across the life span and is supported by evidence and/or research that is not appropriate or missing.

Explain why prostatitis and infection happen. Also explain the causes of systemic reaction.–
Excellent 18 (18%) – 20 (20%)

The response includes an accurate, complete, detailed, and specific explanation of how the highlighted processes interact to affect the patient and is supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

Good 16 (16%) – 17 (17%)

The response includes an accurate explanation of how the highlighted processes interact to affect the patient and is supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.

Fair 14 (14%) – 15 (15%)

The response includes a vague or inaccurate explanation of how the highlighted processes interact to affect the patient, with explanations that are based on inappropriate evidence/research.

Poor 0 (0%) – 13 (13%)

The response includes a vague or inaccurate explanation of how the highlighted processes interact to affect the patient, with explanations that are based on inappropriate or missing evidence/research.Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

Explain why a patient would need a splenectomy after a diagnosis of ITP.–
Excellent 5 (5%) – 10 (10%)

The response includes an accurate, complete, detailed, and specific explanation of racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning and is supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.

Good 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

The response includes an accurate explanation of racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning and is supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

Fair 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

The response includes a vague or inaccurate explanation of racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning, and/or explanations are based on inappropriate evidence/research.Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

Poor 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

The response includes a vague or inaccurate explanation of racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning, or the explanations are based on inappropriate or no evidence/research.

Explain anemia and the different kinds of anemia (i.e., micro and macrocytic).–
Excellent 5 (5%) – 10 (10%)

The response includes an accurate, complete, detailed, and specific explanation of racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning and is supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

Good 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

The response includes an accurate explanation of racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning and is supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.

Fair 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

The response includes a vague or inaccurate explanation of racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning, and/or explanations are based on inappropriate evidence/research.Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

Poor 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

The response includes a vague or inaccurate explanation of racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning, or the explanations are based on inappropriate or no evidence/research.Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization:
Paragraphs make clear points that support well-developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused—neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction are provided that delineate all required criteria.–

Excellent 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity.

A clear and comprehensive purpose statement, introduction, and conclusion are provided that delineate all required criteria.Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

Good 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time.

The purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are stated, yet are brief and not descriptive.

Fair 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%–79% of the time.

The purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are vague or off topic.

Poor 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity < 60% of the time. Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

No purpose statement, introduction, or conclusion were provided.

Written Expression and Formatting – English Writing Standards:
Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation–
Excellent 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.

Good 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Contains a few (1 or 2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

Fair 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Contains several (3 or 4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

Poor 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding.Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.

Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running heads, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list.–
Excellent 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Uses correct APA format with no errors.

Good 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Contains a few (1 or 2) APA format errors.

Fair 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Contains several (3 or 4) APA format errors.

Poor 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors.

Reproductive Health and Hematology: A Case Study.