Pregnancy Symptom and Discomforts

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Pregnancy Symptom and Discomforts Essay

Symptoms of pregnancy are the unusual signs and the feelings that show a woman is pregnant. These unusual pregnancy signs differ from one woman to another but seem to be a universal from stage to stage, accounting for about 40 weeks or nine months. The pregnancy symptoms are counted into three trimesters. The first trimester lasts 0ne to 12 weeks. This trimester explains from the time a woman had her last menstrual period to the zygote stage. Here, the sperm penetrates and fertilized the egg produced by ovary and zygote attaches into the woman’s fallopian tube to the uterus. Additionally, the second trimester begins at 13th week and ends at week 28. In these 15 weeks, the pregnant woman realizes the sex, Muscle tissue, bone, and skin formation of the infant. At the same time, the pregnant woman feels the movement of her fetus. And the third trimester enrolls from week 29 to the 40th week. At this stage, healthy babies can be born.(Foxcroft, K. F, 2013, January 16). Pregnancy Symptom and Discomforts Essay.

However, pregnancies come with sharp a painful ailment that creates discomforts or sickening reaction during the pregnancy (patient.info). These pregnancy discomforts effects be symptoms by others from the behavior of the pregnant woman. Though, women pregnancies differ, there are universal pregnancy symptom indicators that are experience by the most pregnant women. The most identifiable pregnancy discomfort symptoms are usually experienced during first trimester. Majority of the pregnant women experience, nausea and vomiting during or around the fourth to sixth week, the pregnant woman loss appetite and always experience this pain during the morning. At the same time, the pregnant woman feels and observes physical internal and psychological changes. For example, the pregnant woman looks depressed, weak and emotional. She begins her physical changes from her belly, and feels emotional sensitive attachment to her abdomen. Similarly, adore her breast enlargement tender. In addition to this, experience more frequent urination within the first few weeks of becoming pregnant because of swelling uterus pressuring bladder due to high body fluids and kidney efficiency. Also there risks associated with the first trimesters like miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, heavy bleeding, high fever, headache, and women could be at risk for iron deficiency etc.(Women’s Health 2006, April).

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Undoubtedly, in nursing teaching during first trimester; Encourage patient to attended prenatal care, eating health food (lean meat, veggies and fiber), drinking a lot fluid, light exercise, and avoid exercise that can cause fall or an injury to your stomach. Concurrently, the nursing teaching educate the pregnant woman on things to avoid during first trimester are alcohol, caffeine (limit intake up to one cup of day), unpasteurized dairy, fish (shark and swordfish, raw fish) and cat litter (can carry toxoplasmosis).

Unlike, the first trimester, second trimester is when most women feel relieved and begin their pregnancy comfort. For example, morning sickness passes, baby movement occurs, physical and observable changes are happening, baby weight not heavy enough to cause discomfort, most often women start carving of unusual food, and woman can have chance to know their baby gender through ultrasound during doctor visit which at this trimester women visit are once a month .Pregnancy Symptom and Discomforts Essay. however, women can go to doctor visit more than one if there is any other condition or complication. In addition, risks during second trimester, gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, and placenta Previa, miscarriage due to incompetent cervix, fluid membranes and preterm labor.

At this, nursing teaching during second trimester; patient should report when baby kick more than unseal, educate patient about advantage of breastfeeding and benefits of taking Lamaze class, for patient who have  gestational diabetes mellitus check their glucose up to three time a day. Also, should see dietician to manage their diet. Lastly, at this stage should report any warning sign like, increasing urination, thirst and headache.

During third trimester, is when women become anxious for pregnancy to end. She may feel awkward because of her increasing weight and the physical and psychological changes she experiences.in addition, at this stage women end see doctor visit once every two weeks until 36week women see doctor once every week to make sure baby is properly fit on cervix and no abnormal heart beats. At the same time, the is the time when nursing teaching help the pregnancy gets aware of the possible risks at this stage. The nursing education provides teaching or learning materials that can help the pregnant woman. At the same time, the third trimester pregnant woman is well prepared both mentally and physically so that she can be ready for all the late pregnancy discomforts such as preeclampsia, swallowing hands and feet, preterm labor, weight gain, discomfort of baby kicks a lot. Here, is when Nursing teaching emphasize and educate pregnant woman on their true labor and false labor and other alternative of child birth such as, water birth cesarean delivery and other service center and couch like, medulla, birth center etc.

In conclusion, physical and mental pregnancy symptoms and discomfort are common during pregnancy and usually related with norms of pregnancy psychological changes. The pregnancy symptoms and discomfort affects both social and economic viabilities of the pregnant woman. For example, the Pregnancy discomfort leads to unusual chronic absenteeism, bad short temperament and expectation for unforeseen attention from husband, relatives etc. Pregnancy Symptom and Discomforts Essay.(http://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com).

References

Foxcroft, K. F., Callaway, L. K., Byrne, N. M., & Webster, J. (2013, January 16). Development and validation of a pregnancy symptoms inventory. Retrieved March 06, 2017, from .

(n.d.). Retrieved March 06, 2017, from

Default – Stanford Children’s Health. (n.d.). Retrieved March 06, 2017, from .

The National Women’s Health Information Center, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Women’s Health (2006, April). Prenatal Care. Retrieved March 6, 2017, from .

Institute of Medicine. Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, May 2009.

Second Trimester of Pregnancy. (n.d.). Retrieved March 06, 2017, from http://www.webmd.com/baby/guide/second-trimester-of-pregnancy#1

Symptoms of discomfort due to pregnancy vary from woman to woman. The following are some common discomforts. However, each mother-to-be may experience symptoms differently or not at all:

Nausea and vomiting. About half of all pregnant women experience nausea and sometimes vomiting in the first trimester. This is also called morning sickness because symptoms are most severe in the morning. Some women may have nausea and vomiting throughout the pregnancy. Morning sickness may be due to the changes in hormone levels during pregnancy.
Morning sickness seems to be made worse by stress, traveling, and certain foods, like spicy or fatty foods. Eating small meals several times a day may help lessen the symptoms. A diet high in protein and complex carbohydrates (like whole-wheat bread, pasta, bananas, and green, leafy vegetables) may also help reduce the severity of the nausea.

If vomiting is severe, causing a woman to lose fluids and weight, it may be a sign of a condition called hyperemesis gravidarum. Hyperemesis can lead to dehydration and may need hospitalization for intravenous fluids and nutrition. Call your healthcare provider or midwife if you are having constant or severe nausea and vomiting.

Fatigue. As the body works overtime to provide a nourishing environment for the fetus, it is no wonder a pregnant woman often feels tired. In the first trimester, her blood volume and other fluids increase as her body adjusts to the pregnancy. Sometimes anemia is the underlying cause of the fatigue. Anemia is a reduction in the oxygen-carrying capability of red blood cells. It is usually due to low iron levels. A simple blood test performed at a prenatal visit will check for anemia.
Hemorrhoids. Because of increased pressure on the rectum and perineum, the increased blood volume, and the increased likelihood of becoming constipated as the pregnancy progresses, hemorrhoids are common in late pregnancy. Avoiding constipation and straining may help to prevent hemorrhoids. Always check with your healthcare provider or midwife before using any medicine to treat this condition. Pregnancy Symptom and Discomforts Essay.
Varicose veins. Varicose veins—swollen, purple veins—are common in the legs and around the vaginal opening during late pregnancy. In most cases, varicose veins are caused by the increased pressure on the legs and the pelvic veins. It is also caused by the increased blood volume.
Heartburn and indigestion. Heartburn and indigestion, caused by pressure on the intestines and stomach (which, in turn, pushes stomach contents back up into the esophagus). It can be prevented or reduced by eating smaller meals throughout the day and by avoiding lying down shortly after eating.
Bleeding gums. Gums may become more spongy as blood flow increases during pregnancy. This causes them to bleed easily. A pregnant woman should continue to take care of her teeth and gums and go to the dentist for regular checkups. This symptom usually disappears after pregnancy.
Pica. Pica is a rare craving to eat substances other than food, like dirt, clay, or coal. The craving may indicate a nutritional deficiency.
Swelling or fluid retention. Mild swelling is common during pregnancy, but severe swelling that lasts may be a sign of preeclampsia (abnormal condition marked by high blood pressure). Lying on the left side, elevating the legs, and wearing support hose and comfortable shoes may help to relieve the swelling. Be sure to notify your healthcare provider or midwife about sudden swelling, especially in the hands or face, or rapid weight gain.
Skin changes. Due to fluctuations in hormone levels, including hormones that stimulate pigmentation of the skin, brown, blotchy patches may happen on the face, forehead, and/or cheeks. This is often called the mask of pregnancy, or chloasma. It often disappears soon after delivery. Using sunscreen when outside can reduce the amount of darkening that happens.
Pigmentation may also increase in the skin surrounding the nipples, called the areola. In addition, a dark line often appears down the middle of the stomach. Freckles may darken, and moles may grow.

Stretch marks. Pinkish stretch marks may appear on the stomach, breasts, thighs, or buttocks. Stretch marks are generally caused by a rapid increase in weight. The marks usually fade after pregnancy.
Yeast infections. Due to hormone changes and increased vaginal discharge, also called leukorrhea, a pregnant woman is more susceptible to yeast infections. Pregnancy Symptom and Discomforts Essay. Yeast infections are characterized by a thick, whitish discharge from the vagina and itching. Yeast infections are highly treatable. Always talk with your healthcare provider or midwife before taking any medicine for this condition.
Congested or bloody nose. During pregnancy, the lining of the respiratory tract receives more blood, often making it more congested. This congestion can also cause stuffiness in the nose or nosebleeds. In addition, small blood vessels in the nose are easily damaged due to the increased blood volume, causing nosebleeds.
Constipation. Increased pressure from the pregnancy on the rectum and intestines can interfere with digestion and subsequent bowel movements. In addition, hormone changes may slow down the food being processed by the body. Increasing fluids, regular exercise, and increasing the fiber in your diet are some of the ways to prevent constipation. Always check with your healthcare provider or midwife before taking any medicine for this condition.
Backache. As a woman’s weight increases, her balance changes, and her center of gravity is pulled forward, straining her back. Pelvic joints that begin to loosen in preparation for childbirth also contribute to this back strain. Proper posture and proper lifting techniques throughout the pregnancy can help reduce the strain on the back.
Dizziness. Dizziness during pregnancy is a common symptom, which may be caused by:
Low blood pressure due to the uterus compressing major arteries
Low blood sugar
Low iron
Quickly moving from a sitting position to a standing position
Dehydration
To prevent injury from falling during episodes of dizziness, a pregnant woman should stand up slowly and hold on to the walls and other stable structures for support and balance.

Headaches. Hormonal changes may be the cause of headaches during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester. Rest, proper nutrition, and adequate fluid intake may help ease headache symptoms. Always talk with your healthcare provider or midwife before taking any medicine for this condition. If you have a severe headache or a headache that does not resolve, call your healthcare provider. It may be a sign of preeclampsia.
Complications of pregnancy are health problems that occur during pregnancy. They can involve the mother’s health, the baby’s health, or both. Some women have health problems that arise during pregnancy, and other women have health problems before they become pregnant that could lead to complications. It is very important for women to receive health care before and during pregnancy to decrease the risk of pregnancy complications. Pregnancy Symptom and Discomforts Essay.

Before Pregnancy
Make sure to talk to your doctor about health problems you have now or have had in the past. If you are receiving treatment for a health problem, your health care provider might want to change the way your health problem is managed. For example, some medicines used to treat health problems could be harmful if taken during pregnancy. At the same time, stopping medicines that you need could be more harmful than the risks posed should you become pregnant. In addition, be sure to discuss any problems you had in any previous pregnancy. If health problems are under control and you get good prenatal care, you are likely to have a normal, healthy baby.

During Pregnancy
Pregnancy symptoms and complications can range from mild and annoying discomforts to severe, sometimes life-threatening, illnesses. Sometimes it can be difficult for a woman to determine which symptoms are normal and which are not. Problems during pregnancy may include physical and mental conditions that affect the health of the mother or the baby. These problems can be caused by or can be made worse by being pregnant. Many problems are mild and do not progress; however, when they do, they may harm the mother or her baby. Keep in mind that there are ways to manage problems that come up during pregnancy. Always contact your prenatal care provider if you have any concerns during your pregnancy.

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The following are some common maternal health conditions or problems a woman may experience during pregnancy—
AnemiaExternal
Anemia is having lower than the normal number of healthy red blood cells. Treating the underlying cause of the anemia will help restore the number of healthy red blood cells. Women with pregnancy related anemia may feel tired and weak. This can be helped by taking iron and folic acid supplements. Your health care provider will check your iron levels throughout pregnancy.

Urinary Tract InfectionsExternal (UTI)
A UTI is a bacterial infection in the urinary tract. You may have a UTI if you have—

Pain or burning when you use the bathroom.
Fever, tiredness, or shakiness.
An urge to use the bathroom often.
Pressure in your lower belly.
Urine that smells bad or looks cloudy or reddish.
Nausea or back pain.
If you think you have a UTI, it is important to see your health care provider. He/she can tell if you have a UTI by testing a sample of your urine. Treatment with antibiotics to kill the infection will make it better, often in one or two days. Some women carry bacteria in their bladder without having symptoms. Your health care provider will likely test your urine in early pregnancy to see if this is the case and treat you with antibiotics if necessary.

Mental Health Conditions
Some women experience depression during or after pregnancy. Symptoms of depression are:

A low or sad mood.
Loss of interest in fun activities.
Changes in appetite, sleep, and energy.
Problems thinking, concentrating, and making decisions.
Feelings of worthlessness, shame, or guilt.
Thoughts that life is not worth living.
When many of these symptoms occur together and last for more than a week or two at a time, this is probably depression. Depression that persists during pregnancy can make it hard for a woman to care for herself and her unborn baby. Pregnancy Symptom and Discomforts Essay. Having depression before pregnancy also is a risk factor for postpartum depression. Getting treatment is important for both mother and baby. If you have a history of depression, it is important to discuss this with your health care provider early in pregnancy so that a plan for management can be made.

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Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)
Chronic poorly-controlled high blood pressure before and during pregnancy puts a pregnant woman and her baby at risk for problems. It is associated with an increased risk for maternal complications such as preeclampsiaExternal, placental abruption (when the placenta separates from the wall of the uterus), and gestational diabetes. These women also face a higher risk for poor birth outcomes such as preterm delivery, having an infant small for his/her gestational age, and infant death. The most important thing to do is to discuss blood pressure problems with your provider before you become pregnant so that appropriate treatment and control of your blood pressure occurs before pregnancy. Getting treatment for high blood pressure is important before, during, and after pregnancy.

Diabetes During Pregnancy

Learn about types of diabetes during pregnancy, the percentage of women affected, and what CDC is doing to address this important health topic. Managing diabetes can help women have healthy pregnancies and healthy babies.

Obesity and Weight Gain
Recent studies suggest that the heavier a woman is before she becomes pregnant, the greater her risk of pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia, GDM, stillbirth and cesarean delivery. Also, CDC research has shown that obesity during pregnancy is associated with increased use of health care and physician services, and longer hospital stays for delivery. Overweight and obese women who lose weight before pregnancy are likely to have healthier pregnancies. Learn more about ways to reach and maintain a healthy weight before you get pregnant.

InfectionsExternal
During pregnancy, your baby is protected from many illnesses, like the common cold or a passing stomach bug. But some infections can be harmful to you, your baby, or both. Easy steps, such as hand washing, and avoiding certain foods, can help protect you from some infections. You won’t always know if you have an infection—sometimes you won’t even feel sick. If you think you might have an infection or think you are at risk, see your health care provider.

Infections with HIV, viral hepatitis, STDs, and TB can complicate pregnancy and may have serious consequences for a woman, her pregnancy outcomes, and her baby. Screening and treatment for these infections, and vaccinations against viruses, such as hepatitis B and human papillomavirus, can prevent many bad outcomes. Pregnancy Symptom and Discomforts Essay.

Hyperemesis GravidarumExternal
Many women have some nausea or vomiting, or “morning sickness,” particularly during the first 3 months of pregnancy. The cause of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy is believed to be rapidly rising blood levels of a hormone called HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), which is released by the placenta. However, hyperemesis gravidarum occurs when there is severe, persistent nausea and vomiting during pregnancy—more extreme than “morning sickness.” This can lead to weight loss and dehydration and may require intensive treatment.

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Learn more about pregnancy complications from womenshealth.gov.External

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Research
CDC’s Division of Reproductive Health conducts research to better understand pregnancy-related problems, with the aims of making pregnancy healthier, preventing or managing complications, and reducing poor pregnancy outcomes, including death—the most extreme adverse outcome. There are approximately 6 million pregnancies each year in the United States. Small advances in preventing pregnancy-related complications can improve the quality of life for thousands of pregnant women. We can further the development of evidence-based public health prevention with improved sources of maternal health data, and methods for measuring and studying the data. Highlights of some of our research follow

Obesity
In the United States, obesity during pregnancy is common and it increases obstetrical risks. In collaboration with Kaiser Permanente Northwest, CDC conducted a study to assess associations between indicators of use of health care services and body-mass index before pregnancy or in early pregnancy and found that obesity during pregnancy is associated with increased use of health care services. A higher-than-normal BMI was associated with significantly more prenatal fetal tests, obstetrical ultrasonographic examinations, medications dispensed from the outpatient pharmacy, telephone calls to the department of obstetrics and gynecology, and prenatal visits with physicians. It was also associated with significantly fewer prenatal visits with nurse practitioners and physician assistants. Most of the increase in length of stay associated with higher BMI was related to increased rates of cesarean delivery and obesity-related high-risk conditions. (Association between obesity during pregnancy and increased use of health careExternal. N Engl J Med 2008;358:1444–53.)

CDC has supported university investigators from Brigham and Women’s Hospital to develop Balance after Baby, a lifestyle intervention program tailored specifically to meet the needs of postpartum women. The primary aim of this study was to assist women with a new baby to return to a normal weight through an Internet-based program of healthy eating and physical activity, which they could participate in at their convenience. Pregnancy Symptom and Discomforts Essay.