Mental Health for Biopsychosocial Factors Essay

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Mental Health for Biopsychosocial Factors Essay

Describe about the Mental Health for Biopsychosocial Factors.
Answer:
This essay aims to discuss the biopsychosocial factors that contribute to the development of a selected disorder. The case study, which has been selected for this essay, is case 3- Depression. This case study revolves around a 75-year-old woman named Amy, who has been diagnosed to suffer from depression since ten years. The patient started to feel depression after being diagnosed with hypertension and diabetes. After the death of her husband, she started started t feel more depressed. She had a feeling of loneliness. She has two daughters who live in the other city. The family history of disease of the patient revealed that her mother also had depressed and had died fifteen years ago. She expresses her feelings of helplessness, hopelessness and worthlessness and feels that she is a burden for her daughters. This essay will also discuss the nursing management or interventions appropriate for the patient. In addition, it will discuss the ethical implications for the selected case scenario.

Depression is one of the most common psychological or mental disorders. It is unavoidable and results in the development of feelings such as sorrow, helplessness and hopelessness. Mental Health for Biopsychosocial Factors Essay.The individuals suffering from depression usually lose their interests in the activities, which once gave them pleasure (Driessen et al., 2013). They start experiencing loss of appetite, difficulty in making decisions and feelings of loneliness (Davison et al., 2012). In the given case scenario, it is evident that the patient has lost interest in her activities. In addition, she was experiencing disturbances in sleep. She lost her appetite and had lost six kilograms in the past two months.

It is commonly believed that all the psychological/mental disorders results due to a complex interaction as well as combination of social, biological and psychological factors. This theory is known as the biopsychosocial model of causation and is mostly accepted by a number of mental health professionals who are concerned to deal with the individuals suffering from depression. Dr. George Engel, a cardiologist, first developed this model. According to this model, the biological, psychological and social factors are interlinked and essential with respect to the cause of a disease (Davison et al., 2012). In other words, the body and the mind are not independent and different entities, but rather are associated and interdependent entities. The things, which affect the mind will commonly affect the body; and vice versa. Sickness and wellness is not merely a concern of the physical state of an individual but it also has an influence on the psychological as well as social status of an individual. The mental health professionals are encouraged by a model for explaining the phenomena like depression by investigating all the pertinent biological, psychological and social factors that contributes the development the disorders like depression (Rawat et al., 2015).

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With respect to the biological factors, it has been identified that the depressed individuals are have a disturbed functioning in the endocrine, neurotransmitter and immune systems. Additionally, depression can make an individual more susceptible to develop a variety of physical disorders. In the same way, the individuals who have a physical disorder are commonly more probable of developing depression (Driessen et al., 2013).Mental Health for Biopsychosocial Factors Essay. It has also been suggested by a research that genes can be influential for transferring depression from one generation to the other (Davison et al., 2012). Some individuals may be more vulnerable to develop depression with respect to their genetics and biological factors that places them to become more prone to depression. Serotonin, which is a neurotransmitter, plays a significant role with respect to the biological functions like appetite, concentration, memory and quality of sleep. However, this theory is still under investigation, a number of researchers consider that when individuals become very sad, then in the brain, the serotonin level becomes imbalanced. In addition, the primary function of the levels of serotonin is compromised. That is why, for increasing the serotonin levels, antidepressants are recommended (Bellamy & Hardy, 2015).

The psychological factors, which are responsible for depression includes judgment problems, negative thinking patterns, impaired emotional intellect and insufficiency in coping skills. To some extent, biology has an influence on these psychological factors (Bellamy & Hardy, 2015). For instance, the inborn temperament or biologically based traits of the individuals can influence tem to be relatively probable for acting in ways of the depression characteristics (Lopresti, Hood & Drummond, 2013).

Depression can also result in the individuals due to the social factors like lack of social assistance, experiencing distressing situations, harassment and early separation. It has been revealed by the research that traumatic social events have a capability to serve as triggers for switching the genes off and on and resulting in the changes in the functioning of brain. Through this path, the social stressors can lead to the triggering of depression associated with a physical cause. Social and environmental cause of depression can also be restrained in comparison to actual distress. The sudden loss of a loved one also brings about the feelings of grief and loneliness. It is evident in the given case scenario as the patient felt more depressed after the death of her husband. Sometimes individuals do not have information, which is required for coping with the situations that are emotionally distressing and due to these, the individuals become depressed (Sarafino & Smith, 2014). Mental Health for Biopsychosocial Factors Essay.

The nursing management or intervention for appropriate for the depression is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). It assumes that the mood of individuals is directly associated with their thought patterns. An individual’s mood, behavior, self-sense and even physical condition, is affected by negative dysfunctional thinking (Yoshimura et al., 2014). The goal of this therapy is to assist an individual to learn and identify the negative thought patterns, evaluating their validity, and substituting them with positive ways of thinking. Similarly, a therapist who practices CBT aims to assist their patients or clients in changing the behavioral patterns that arise due to dysfunctional thinking. An individual is predisposed to become depressed due to negative thinking and behavior and makes them think that their life useless. According to the practitioners of CBT, when thought patterns as well as behavior of the individuals get changed, consequently their mood also gets altered (Yoshimura et al., 2014).

This therapy is based on two specific tasks, namely cognitive restructuring and behavioral activation. In cognitive restructuring, the therapist as well as the patient works in association for changing the patterns of thinking (Yoshimura et al., 2014). While behavioral activation involves learning for overcoming obstacles to participate in the enjoyable activities (Hofmann et al., 2012). Cognitive behavioral therapy stresses on the present conditions i.e. what and how an individual thinks more than why an individual thinks ij that manner. This therapy focuses on specific problems. Problem thinking and problem behaviors are recognized, prioritized and are addressed specifically in the sessions comprising of an individual or groups. This therapy is goal oriented (Fava et al., 2014). The clients or patients who work with the therapists are asked for defining their goals for every session together with the long-term goals. The goals that are of a longer-term may take more than a few weeks or months to be achieved. Several goals may be targeted to be completed subsequent to the completion of the sessions (Driessen et al., 2013).

CBT approach is educational as structured experiences of learning is utilized by the therapist for monitoring and writing down the negative thoughts as well as mental images of the patients. The key goal is to identify how physical condition, mood and behaviors are affected by those ideas. In addition, the patients are also taught the necessary coping skills like scheduling enjoyable experiences and problem solving skills (Cuijpers et al., 2013). The patients undergoing this therapy are expected to participate actively in the learning role, in the sessions as well as between the sessions (Driessen et al., 2013). At each session, they are given assignments. Several of them are graded in the starting point and the reviewing of assignments is carried out in the beginning of the next session (Fava et al., 2014). Mental Health for Biopsychosocial Factors Essay. This therapy employs numerous strategies, together with imagery, Socratic questioning, behavioral experiments and guided discovery. It is time bound and the treatment lasts for fourteen to sixteen weeks (Hofmann et al., 2012).

Besides CBT, the nursing management or intervention that can be utilized for the treatment of depression involves pharmacologic treatment. There are numerous kinds of medications that can be used for the treatment of depression (Zarate et al., 2013).The symptoms of depression are improved by enhancing the availability of some specific chemicals of the brain known as neurotransmitters. It is assumed that these chemicals can assist in regulating the circuits of the brain that has an effect on emotions (Bewernick et al., 2012). The most important types of antidepressants comprise- Tricyclic antidepressants, Selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitors, Monoamine oxidase inhibitors and Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Around one, half of the patients of primary care suffering from depression have a partial response to these drugs or medications. Only one third of the depressed individuals who undergo treatment involving a single depressant attain remission, which means entire resolution of symptoms following three months (Bewernick et al., 2012). The cultural as well as medical factors have an influence on the probability of improvement of the patient involving antidepressant medications. Positive response predictors for the treatment comprise the severity of a lower baseline, private insurance, higher level of education, higher income, higher level of physical and mental level and a shorter depression episode (Zarate et al., 2013).

Art and craft group activities can be effective for managing the symptoms of depression. The activities of art and crafts may encourage psychological or mental well-being of the patients suffering from depression as it is concerned as remediation or recreation therapy. The art therapists frequently consider the therapeutic association as a key to facilitate the investigation of emotional concerns of the patients. It is also concerned with the self or individual engagements in the procedure of the group activities of arts and crafts as it promotes the welfare of the patients or clients. The therapists of creative arts often observe the arts to facilitate in developing emotional awareness and empathy, self-expression, and encouraging self-actualization (Zarate et al., 2013).

The ethical implications with respect to the treatment of depression involve the mediation that dominates the curing of the depressive symptoms. The under utilization of evidence-based psychotherapy is concerned with an ethical condemnation of contemporary management of depression (Sheehan & McGee, 2013). Cognitive Behavioral therapy needs individuals to understand the impact of depression and in most of the cases, a response to the situations that are particularly stressful (Marco et al., 2016). Additionally, CBT instructs the individuals that a depressed mood prejudices the processing of information in a way that promotes impractical pessimism . Mental Health for Biopsychosocial Factors Essay. It has been argued by Paul Biegler that in the ethical treatment of depression, the insights of the patient gained from the therapeutic procedures promote autonomy (Glannon, 2016). The therapists have a moral obligation for promoting the autonomy of the patients suffering from depression. They also have an ethical compulsion necessary for prescribing psychotherapy in the treatment of depression. There are ethical questions, which rise in the dealings of pharmaceutical companies with respect to the marketing of antidepressants (Foye et al., 2015).

To conclude, the patient in the given case scenario can be recommended the discussed nursing management and interventions to overcome from depression. The symptoms of depression should be taken into consideration and should be treated in a rapid manner. It is inescapable and leads to the development of feelings like sorrow, helplessness and hopelessness. The individuals suffering from depression typically lose their interests in the activities, which once gave them pleasure. They start experiencing loss of appetite, difficulty in making decisions and feelings of loneliness. Hence, these interventions can help in overcoming the symptoms of depression of the patient. These interventions focus on specific problems that are associated with depression and can boost the confidence level by eliminating the negative patterns of thinking in an efficient manner.

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References
Bellamy, S., & Hardy, C. (2015). Factors predicting depression across multiple domains in a national longitudinal sample of canadian youth. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 43(4), 633-643.

Bewernick, B. H., Kayser, S., Sturm, V., & Schlaepfer, T. E. (2012). Long-term effects of nucleus accumbens deep brain stimulation in treatment-resistant depression: evidence for sustained efficacy.Neuropsychopharmacology, 37(9), 1975-1985.

Cuijpers, P., Berking, M., Andersson, G., Quigley, L., Kleiboer, A., & Dobson, K. S. (2013). A meta-analysis of cognitive-behavioural therapy for adult depression, alone and in comparison with other treatments. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 58(7), 376-385.

Davison, T. E., McCabe, M. P., Knight, T., & Mellor, D. (2012). Biopsychosocial factors related to depression in aged care residents. Journal of affective disorders, 142(1), 290-296. Mental Health for Biopsychosocial Factors Essay.

Driessen, E., Van, H. L., Don, F. J., Peen, J., Kool, S., Westra, D., … & Dekker, J. J. (2013). The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychodynamic therapy in the outpatient treatment of major depression: a randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Psychiatry.

Fava, G. A., Ruini, C., Rafanelli, C., Finos, L., Conti, S., & Grandi, S. (2014). Six-year outcome of cognitive behavior therapy for prevention of recurrent depression. American Journal of Psychiatry.

Foye, S. J., Kirschner, K. L., Wagner, L. C. B., Stocking, C., & Siegler, M. (2015). Ethical issues in rehabilitation: A qualitative analysis of dilemmas identified by occupational therapists. Topics in stroke rehabilitation.

Glannon, W. (2016). Ethical issues in neuroprosthetics. Journal of neural engineering, 13(2), 021002.

Hofmann, S. G., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I. J., Sawyer, A. T., & Fang, A. (2012). The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy: a review of meta-analyses.Cognitive therapy and research, 36(5), 427-440.

Lopresti, A. L., Hood, S. D., & Drummond, P. D. (2013). A review of lifestyle factors that contribute to important pathways associated with major depression: diet, sleep and exercise. Journal of affective disorders, 148(1), 12-27.

Marco, C. A., Venkat, A., Baker, E. F., Jesus, J. E., Geiderman, J. M., & ACEP Ethics Committee. (2016). Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs: Ethical Issues in the Emergency Department. Annals of emergency medicine.

Rawat, V., Dawson, D., Schilders, M. R., & Kennedy, G. A. (2015). Sleep disturbances among Victorian paramedics and the impact of demographic and biopsychosocial factors. The Time of Your Life. Australasian Chronobiology Society, Melbourne, Australia, 12-17. Mental Health for Biopsychosocial Factors Essay.

Sarafino, E. P., & Smith, T. W. (2014). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions. John Wiley & Sons.

Sheehan, A. M., & McGee, H. (2013). Screening for depression in medical research: ethical challenges and recommendations. BMC medical ethics,14(1), 1.

Yoshimura, S., Okamoto, Y., Onoda, K., Matsunaga, M., Okada, G., Kunisato, Y., … & Yamawaki, S. (2014). Cognitive behavioral therapy for depression changes medial prefrontal and ventral anterior cingulate cortex activity associated with self-referential processing. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 9(4), 487-493.

Zarate, C., Duman, R. S., Liu, G., Sartori, S., Quiroz, J., & Murck, H. (2013). New paradigms for treatment‐resistant depression. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1292(1), 21-31. Mental Health for Biopsychosocial Factors Essay.