Diabetes and Possible Interventions

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Diabetes and Possible Interventions Essay

Unhealthy nutrition may bring about numerous health concerns from minor to severe ones such as type 2 diabetes, even though genetic predisposition plays the most critical role in the appearance of the disease. Since this condition rates among the major causes of premature death and can provoke kidney problems, heart failures, blindness, and nerve damage to mention a few, it is highly important to develop and implement preventive measures (including nutrition and exercise patterns) that would decrease the enumerated risks. Even seemingly insignificant changes in lifestyle can reduce the chances of acquiring this dangerous condition.Diabetes and Possible Interventions Essay. For this reason, the given paper delves into diabetes’ peculiarities, and the impact food habits might have on the development of the disease among this group of patients. The paper has a clear structure and contributes to the improved understanding of the main peculiarities of the issue.

The last several decades may be characterized by the increased importance of dietary habits and the impact they have on the state of a person’s health. The fact is that the tendency towards the deterioration of the quality of products triggered by the alterations in the environment and numerous food supplements preconditions the appearance of numerous health problems as well as the rise of chronic diseases (Asif, 2014).

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According to the data provided by the World Health Organization, approximately 400 million people across the globe are currently suffering from diabetes (not including those who have not been diagnosed), and this figure is to exceed 500 million by 2035 (Ley, Hamdy, Mohan, & Hu, 2014). Moreover, there are still a lot of those who are not aware of having diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2017). Diabetes and Possible Interventions Essay. For this reason, the comprehensive investigation of the issue becomes crucial for the health of the nation and its ability to survive. The gradual deterioration of the state of the nation’s health is the main priority that should be given great attention in the treatment of diabetes.

The relevance of the Study
Diabetes may be complicated by the unique nature of the problem. On this note, the majority of issues touched upon in the paper turn out to be extremely relevant for the modern environment and could be used for further research on the topic and the improvement of the basic understanding of the most important aspects of the given problem. The reality is that the occurrence of the issue does not depend on the country’s level of development, which implies that even people from highly advanced regions are not safeguarded from it (American Diabetes Association, 2017). For this reason, this study turns out to be extremely relevant as it delves into the problem that threatens numerous communities and raises many issues related to the healthcare sector. Diabetes and Possible Interventions Essay.

Purpose of the Study
The above-mentioned relevance of the study preconditions the introduction of the following purpose and hypothesis that are needed to guarantee the comprehensive investigation of the sphere and provide credible conclusions. The purpose of the proposed research is to obtain a better understanding of effective patterns for preventing type II diabetes. It comes from the complex situation in the given sphere and the necessity of the creation of the course of actions that will be able to slow down the spread of the disease and help patients suffering from type 2 diabetes to enjoy the life and preserve its quality on a certain level.Diabetes and Possible Interventions Essay.

Hypothesis
The hypothesis runs as follows:

Meaningful changes in lifestyle (reviewing nutrition and physical exercise patterns) help prevent type II diabetes.

The hypothesis rests on the latest investigations, which state that crucial alterations of dietary habits and the lifestyle could help to improve the quality of life and prevent the development of different diseases. The comprehensive investigation of the issue and the above-mentioned hypothesis precondition the review of literature and usage of a specific methodology that could help to obtain credible data and create the basis for the following discussion. Besides, primary data could be obtained from scholarly articles devoted to the issue. For this reason, the literature review becomes one of the suggested methods used to incorporate the specific knowledge and create a theoretical framework for the discussion.

Literature Review
As stated above, diabetes becomes one of the most topical issues peculiar to the modern health care sector. Marks (2015) in his paper states that a number of the most problematic chronic diseases that deteriorate the quality of people’s lives could be considered a result of poor dietary habits, the wrong mode of life, inappropriate quality of products, and other problems peculiar to the modern technological society.

In his article, the author also states that the lack of access or overstock of products triggers the evolution of numerous health problems and diabetes is one of them. Under these conditions, the need for an efficient program aimed at the alteration of dietary habits as one of the possible solutions becomes evident. People who belong to the risk group and have an increased probability of having diabetes should be provided with information about the impact that the products they consume have on their health and the development of diabetes.

In their paper, Wilmot and Idris (2014) focus on the tendency towards the deterioration of the situation in the given sphere. Delving into the issue, they provide the fact that the early onset of type 2 diabetes is increasingly prevalent with a crucial impact on individuals, healthcare, and care delivery (Wilmot & Idris, 2014). Diabetes and Possible Interventions Essay.Among the risk factors that trigger the early onset, they also outline obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and genetic factors like a family history of type 2 diabetes or belonging to a black minority who are predisposed to this very disease.

Moreover, there is a tendency towards the earlier aggressive risks of diabetes appearance. The combination of these factors indicates the character of the problem that could be considered an epidemic. In this regard, they suggest the complex solution to the problem that consists both of the alterations of the dietary factors and the mode of life. Although genetic factors may hardly be eliminated, the investigators still admit the great potential of the above-mentioned actions as the possible solution to the problem.

Trying to determine the main causes for the high speed of diabetes development and its appearance among different groups of the population, Gude et al. (2016) conduct specific research that is focused on the investigation of glycemic variability in terms of demographic factors and environmental lifestyles. Using middle-aged men and women as the participants of the study, they conclude that no significant differences between men and women belonging to the same race could be found (Gude et al., 2016). However, such factors as age, gender, BMI, alcohol intake, smoking status, and physical activity increase the probability of the diabetes onset significantly as they precondition the divergences in glycemic variability (Gude et al., 2016). Finally, aging is considered another factor promoting the deterioration of the situation related to type 2 diabetes. In this regard, the given paper demonstrates that diabetes could threaten different demographic groups, especially in case risk factors could also be discovered.

Aregbesola, Voutilainen, Virtanen, Mursu, and Tuomainen (2017) seek to investigate the issue and try to determine the gender differences in type 2 diabetes and factors that might impact a female or male body in various ways. Besides, the contribution of body iron is analyzed by the authors. In the course of the investigation, the authors state that “a total of 201 types 2 diabetes cases were observed (males = 111 [55.2%] vs. female = 90 [44.8%], P = 0.032), and in adjusted models, males have higher odds of type 2 diabetes” (Aregbesola et al., 2017, p. 117). This demonstrates that gender becomes a significant risk factor when cogitating about the onset of diabetes and its development. The investigators conclude that type 2 diabetes may affect both men and women; however, men are more predisposed to type 2 diabetes because of the peculiarities of body iron and endocrine profile. For this reason, approaches to treatment should be chosen depending on gender factors and other aspects peculiar to male or female bodies.

Similar to Aregbesola et al. (2017), Bockwoldt et al. (2016) revolve around the issue of diabetes where they try to determine the impact diabetes has on African Americans (AA) and its onset probability rates. They conduct a comprehensive assessment of AA communities. The authors state that representatives of this group “are disproportionally affected by type 2 diabetes and are diagnosed at an earlier age, but are less adherent to diabetes medications compared to the general population” (Bockwoldt et al., 2016).Diabetes and Possible Interventions Essay.

This creates a great problem for caregivers. The increased number of diabetes’ cases among AA men and women threatens the health of the nation as poor dietary habits and the mode of life could hardly be considered the main risk factors for the given group (Bockwoldt et al., 2016). Besides, the AA population becomes extremely vulnerable to the disease, and the problem is complicated by the poor response to treatment. For this reason, the need for an efficient approach to eliminating the threat becomes obvious.

Another qualitative study performed by Parry-Strong, Leikis, and Krebs (2013) tends to analyze the current situation in the given scheme and the impact that dietary and physical exercise interventions have one the appearance and evolution of risk factors. Using a physically active person predisposed to type 2 diabetes because of the genetic factors as the landmark for their research; investigators compared him to other participants’ showings to determine the impact appropriate mode of life has on a person.

In the course of the experiment, they came to the affirmation that the healthy mode of life improves the overall state of a patient’s health; however, it could not serve as the guarantee of diabetes non-appearance under the impact of other significant factors. In such a way, they conclude that one intervention that includes physical activity only could not be considered efficient enough to prevent the diabetes early onset and the development of the disease within the next several years (Parry-Strong et al., 2013).

The efficiency of diet or physical exercises only is also doubted by Xiang, Hernandez, and Larrison (2015) in their investigation. Looking for the most important methods to struggle in the prevention and management of diabetes and guarantee the elimination of risk factors, the authors compared the studies devoted to these methods and results that could be obtained in case one of the approaches are used.Diabetes and Possible Interventions Essay. It turned out that their effect is not enough to guarantee that a patient will not suffer from diabetes or its complications.

For this reason, Xiang et al. (2015) insist on the usage of a complex approach that combines both appropriate diet and physical exercises to attain success and assist patients in their speedy recovery. The results of this approach turn out to be much more efficient, and patients suffering from type 2 diabetes demonstrate significant improvement of outcomes along with the better well-being and overall quality of life. In this regard, the recommendation to use only combined approaches as a way to struggle against type 2 diabetes and guarantee mitigation of the negative effect or risk factors was given.

In their paper, Hooks-Anderson, Crannage, Salas, and Shcerrer (2015) try to determine race-related disparities in diabetes spread and education, as well as the impact that gender and race might have on the development of the disease. For this reason, a cross-sectional study among 3967 patients from 14 to 89 years with diabetes and prediabetes was conducted (Hooks-Anderson et al., 2015).

By the medical records, a high percentage of AA patients suffered from type 2 diabetes and the lack of information related to the peculiarities of the disease. This fact could not but impact the state of this group’s health and introduce a significant problem that should be solved to guarantee the improvement of the situation and elimination the risk factors. Additional research conducted to determine divergences between different age and gender groups showed that the outcomes between these groups differ. For this reason, a specific approach to people belonging to different demographic layers is needed. Diabetes and Possible Interventions Essay.

Interventions
As interventions come from the literature review, meaningful alterations in the mode of life turn out to be useful when struggling against type 2 diabetes. Lack of regular physical activities and unhealthy consumption behaviors (for example, eating junk food frequently) are the main causes of diabetes. The given statement supports the hypothesis about the efficiency of reviewing nutrition and physical exercise patterns. The most effective interventions for the prevention and treatment of obesity include alteration of nutritional practices to guarantee that healthy food is consumed at all times and physical activities are conducted regularly. Involving all the members of the family is a helpful step towards the achievement of a successful change aimed at preventing obesity.

Methodology
This study used the primary method of collecting data where information was acquired from The Mount Sinai Diabetes Center, in New York City. An experiment was carried out with a suitable sample size to ensure a comprehensive grip of the facts behind the research. Google and online libraries such as EBSCOhost and Emerald were employed in the collection of secondary data.

The analysis of both the primary and secondary data was enhanced by an experimental intervention based on various exercise and dieting patterns (as well as no changes in lifestyle) and measuring the level of blood sugar of patients with prediabetes before, during, and after the program. In this regard, the qualitative approach of data analysis could be considered the most appropriate for the investigation of the issue. Diabetes and Possible Interventions Essay. The exploration of the given methodology was expected to help the investigator to collect the information needed to either prove or refute the above-mentioned hypothesis and make credible conclusions.

Convenience sampling acted as the most effective strategy in this study because it entailed the easiest available participants and journal articles to be employed in the research. The manner of getting the most resourceful participants for the study was discussed with the management of Mount Sinai Hospital where The Mount Sinai Diabetes Center is situated. After discussions, four doctors, 120 females, and 110 male patients were requested to take part in the study, and they all turned up. On the other hand, ten of the best journal articles were selected from Google, EBSCOhost, and Emerald, after which the most recent and reputable five were picked for use in the study.

To collect factual evidence, the following approach was suggested. Participants of the study were divided into two groups: the control and the intervention ones. The representatives of the first group did not alter their lifestyles while the respondents belonging to the second one had to change dietary habits and exercise patterns. Diabetes and Possible Interventions Essay. The given model helped to determine the efficiency of the suggested methods by comparing the level of blood sugar of patients with prediabetes before, during, and after the program. The divergence in showings was used to conclude the most appropriate way to treat and prevent type 2 diabetes and how the combination of improved dietary habits with intense physical exercise might improve the state of patients’ health (Gude et al., 2016). The chosen approach seems to be the most appropriate in terms of the given setting.

Results
The data collected in the course of the intervention demonstrated that the patients belonging to the second group showed much better results, which was proved by blood sugar levels measured after the program. In the beginning, all respondents had similar showings peculiar to people with prediabetes. However, during the program, the divergence in data could be observed. Representatives of the control group preserved the same sugar levels with some tendency towards the gradual increase. Respondents belonging to the intervention group demonstrated decreased blood sugar levels (see Table 1). After the program, the results differed significantly, which could be used to conclude the efficiency of different interventions. Diabetes and Possible Interventions Essay.

Table 1: Results of the Study

Average blood sugar levels
Before the program During the program After the program
Control group 119 102 91
Intervention group 111 116 119
Data Analysis
The data analysis strategy for this research relied on the study method and the nature of the collected data. On this note, the qualitative technique of data analysis was found to be the most appropriate. The evaluation of the nominal details for this research was descriptive and had a critical influence in facilitating a better comprehension of the complexity of the current diabetes treatment and management practices, as well as the best means of ensuring a healthy lifestyle and consumption behavior.

Discussion and Action Plan
The results of the research obtained due to the suggested intervention serve as the credible evidence of the efficiency of the intervention that combines both alterations of the dietary habits along with the physical exercises (American Diabetes Association, 2017; Marks, 2015). The divergences in showings between the control group and the intervention group demonstrate that better outcomes could be achieved only in case the suggested intervention method is used. In this regard, the following plan of action could be suggested.

Patients suffering from prediabetes should alter their dietary habits to exclude products with high sugar content to preserve appropriate glycemic levels. Diabetes and Possible Interventions Essay. Moreover, appropriate physical exercises should be used along with a healthy diet to attain a significant decrease in blood sugar and prevent type II diabetes appearance and development (Aregbesola et al., 2017). The plan of action should rest on the unique features of every individual and his/her state of health (Bockwoldt et al., 2016). It means that the appropriate diet and physical activity should be introduced for every patient to be able to engage in the recovery process.

Limitations
The character of the study also presupposed several limitations. To start with, the number of respondents was limited. A small sampling size contributes to the lower credibility of data and introduces certain limits when investigating a suggested phenomenon. Moreover, time restrictions also limited opportunities for the enhanced investigation of the issue because of the impossibility to conduct a long-term experiment that will also assess the results after the program is finished and in different periods and geographical settings. For this reason, further research should include a bigger number of respondents along with improved time limits to be able to assess all the needed aspects and provide credible conclusions.

Conclusion
In the course of the investigation, the risk factors related to the onset of type 2 diabetes were determined and discussed. Considering the unique complexity of the situation, an efficient solution to the problem is needed. For this reason, the efficiency of dietary alterations along with physical exercises was analyzed using two groups (the control and intervention one).

The results of the study proved the hypothesis about the necessity of combining these two approaches to attain improved results and preserve the state of the health of a patient suffering from type 2 diabetes. Diabetes and Possible Interventions Essay. For this reason, the plan of action to improve the quality of life should include a specific diet and physical activity that rest on patients’ peculiarities.

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References
American Diabetes Association. (2017). Prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 40(1), 44-47.

Aregbesola, A., Voutilainen, S., Virtanen, J., Mursu, J., & Tuomainen, T. (2017). Gender difference in type 2 diabetes and the role of body iron stores. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 54(1), 113-120. doi:10.1177/0004563216646397

Asif, M. (2014). The prevention and control of type-2 diabetes by changing lifestyle and dietary pattern. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 3, 1-8.

Bockwoldt, D., Staffileno, B., Coke, L., Hamilton, R., Fogg, L., Calvin, D., & Quinn, L. (2016). Understanding experiences of diabetes medications among African Americans living with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 1(1), 3-7. doi:10.1177/1043659616651674. Diabetes and Possible Interventions Essay.

Gude, F., Diaz-Vidal, P., Rua-Perez, C., Alonso-Sampredo, M., Fernandez-Merino, C., Rey-Garcia, J., Gonzalez-Quintela, A. (2016). Glycemic variability and its association with demographics and lifestyles in a general adult population. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, 2(3), 4-8. doi:10.1177/1932296816682031

Hooks-Anderson, D., Crannage, E., Salas, J., & Shcerrer, J. (2015). Race and eeferral to diabetes education in primary care patients with prediabetes and diabetes. The Diabetes Educator, 41(3), 281-289. doi:10.1177/0145721715574604

Ley, S. H., Hamdy, O., Mohan, V., & Hu, F. B. (2014). Prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: Dietary components and nutritional strategies. Lancet, 383(9933), 1999-2007.

Marks, D. (2015). Special issue: Food, diets and dieting. Journal of Health Psychology, 20(5), 469-472. doi:10.1177/1359105315573452

Parry-Strong, A., Leikis, M., & Krebs, J. (2013). High protein diets and renal disease – Is there a relationship in people with type 2 diabetes? The British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease, 13(5-6), 238-243. doi:10.1177/1474651413503020

Wilmot, E., & Idris, I. (2014). Early onset type 2 diabetes: Risk factors, clinical impact and management. Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease, 5(6), 234-244. doi:10.1177/2040622314548679

Xiang, X., Hernandez, R., & Larrison, C. (2015). Provider advice on exercise and diet among adults with comorbid serious psychological distress and diabetes or diabetes risk factors. The Diabetes Educator, 41(2), 185-193. doi:10.1177/0145721714567234. Diabetes and Possible Interventions Essay.