Compare Different Research Methodologies for Health

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Compare Different Research Methodologies for Health

P3: Compare different research methodologies for health and social care. In this assignment I will be comparing the different types of research methodologies for health and social care. INTERVIEWS: Interviews are usually taken for people when they are looking for jobs or looking places in college and universities. There are many advantages of interviews, one being that they will be able to get good information and some data, also they will develop their communication skills too when talking to the other individual. Compare Different Research Methodologies for Health.

However there are also many weaknesses such as, time consuming, the person being interviewed could be lying and also the questions may not be clear. Another weakness is that there could be a language barrier between the two people. QUESTIONNAIRES: Questionnaires are set a set of questions given to an individual to either find out their likes and dislikes or to find out some data. The disadvantages of questionnaires is that it’s quite difficult as it will be difficult to collect as some people might not even give the questionnaire back or even fill it out on the spot.

Due to this, the response level will be low because some people might not be bothered to fill it out.

However, questionnaires can also be very useful as it will help research in different samples. On the other hand, with interviews, you can directly ask the person being interviewed on their thoughts and opinions so it is more likely they give you a more detailed answer face to face instead of writing it on paper. The advantages of an questionnaire is PARTICIPANTS OBESRVATION: Participant observation is a type of research method which is used to carry out research or find out data of a certain subjectThe advantage of this research methodology is that they will get accurate data as they are a part of the group they are studying so they witness it firsthand. However, the weaknesses of this research method is that it is very time consuming and Researchers spend months or years living in the place of study. Second, the researchers have to pick through data from massive amounts of notes.


Third, since such studies usually focus on small groups, it is hard to make any generalizations from the findings NON-PARTICIPANTS OBSERVATION: Non participants is another research methodology used. This method includes the observer not being part of the group and just watching from a far distance. Compare Different Research Methodologies for Health. The advantage of this method is that the observer may get some good data as they are observing closely. Easier to record data as you are not participating, also it is very cheap and simple. However, the disadvantages are that you may not get as much data as you are not a part of the discussions so you may not get a lot of information as you would like. BOOKS: Books are in formation written down by people. They can be written down as knowledge or real life stories. The advantages form getting information and writing data from a book is that you will find out a lot of information that you didn’t already know. Also you will extend you knowledge by reading.

However, the information may not be accurate and could be false. Another weaknesses form getting information books is that it is also quite time consuming looking for the answers and information when reading a book. WEBSITES: This method is another way to get data from. Websites are also very good because they can find you reliable information about any topic you want to gain knowledge from. However a disadvantage for websites is that they could contain false information. Another advantage is that there are wide ranges of information you could use for your research and data which could help you with research.

TPB can explicate the non-volitional behaviour which is the major restriction of TRA. Behavioral purposes are non merely determiner of the behaviour if control over the behaviour is non at that place. By adding PCB constituent TPB can depict the association among behavioural purpose and existent behaviour.

In past many planning and research surveies tried to pattern the effects of different external factors on travel behaviour normally consequences are based on socio-economic differences and much less attending toward socio-psychological differences among respondents or aim population. Largely, these surveies are soundless on replying why relationship exist between travel behaviour, socio-economic, spacial and personality features. These inquiries could efficaciously answered by using TPB theory.

TPB is public-service corporation based theory, and single travel behaviour in conveyance mold is normally explained by utilizing construct of public-service corporation maximization which farther reinforces the effectivity of TPB in this scenario.

Controllability factor is the major determiner in instance of conveyance. Under travel behaviour paradigm, we are largely concerned, how the user makes picks between available manners, and clip of travel. Restriction of available resources in the signifier of money, clip, and vehicle ownership cause such users to adhere to public conveyance manners, or sooner walk in all fortunes nevertheless on the other terminal behaviour of users holding multiple picks is a challenge for TPB. In multiple picks instance, attitude could be the major determiner followed by subjective norm whereas controllability will be holding small consequence unless the user edge by some strong barriers ; like, making office on clip in haste hours, multiple activities involved in one trip etc. Overall all TPB is a really effectual tool in understanding the travel behaviour which opened new Gatess to understand the hidden factors which were non clear before. Compare Different Research Methodologies for Health.

Issues with TPB
Following major issues could be listed for TPB which are major inquiries when applied to understand the travel behaviour based on any specific intercessions ;

TPB overlooks emotional factors such as fright, menace, temper, negative or positive feeling compared to affective processing theoretical accounts, this is the major concern in the manner pick normally.

Less grounds available from experimental surveies and largely the construct is explained by the correlativities ( Sniehotta 2009 ) .

The major job of TPB is to overrate the impact of accustomed affects ; it has small consequence on human action as when a individual become used to some travel manners like siting a coach to university, he do n’t do a new determination every forenoon to take coach.

Beliefs are accessed and attitudes & A ; purposes are consciously formulated when a behaviour is changed, and one time the behaviour has been performed many times, so it is non necessary to travel through the accessible beliefs considerations. So while, questioning the people who had gone through this phase will be hard to separate.

Self-reports of behaviour were undependable, compared with more nonsubjective behaviour steps which consequences in self-presentational prejudices ( Gaes, Kalle and Tedeschi 1978 ; Pellino 1997 ) whereas, in conveyance largely we are concerned with nonsubjective side of it.

Ajzen ( 1991 ) argues that PBC and self-efficacy constructs are substitutable. However, many argued they are non synonyms, whereas, self-efficacy is concerned with internal cognitive factors and PBC with external factors which is the most of import factor in finding the modal pick ( Bandura 1990 ) .

Many argued that subjective norms is the weakest forecaster of purposes which is because many used it as individual point step instead than multi point graduated tables ( Nunnally, Bernstein and Berge 1967 ) . Compare Different Research Methodologies for Health.

Theoretically concept of direct & A ; indirect steps must be closely correlated but empirical grounds showed that scaling method of measurement consequence the correlativity which makes this theory less utile than other theories available like anticipation value based theoretical account ( Gagne and Godin 2000 ) .

TPB as extension of TRA ; so stress more on beliefs and subjective norm, nevertheless, conveyance experience shows, largely users are concerned with handiness or self-efficacy over the available options of travel, whereas, merely limited users may be more witting about other two factors with available resources.

Model / Stages of Change
Long-run alterations in behaviour involve multiple actions and versions over long period of clip, some people may non be ready to accept certain alterations while others may hold already been implementing certain alterations in their behaviour. The chief construct or land of this theoretical account is the Stages of Change ( SOC ) , which regards the chronic behaviour where persons can be characterized to be at different phases of preparedness to follow new behaviour out of entire five phases ( Prochaska et al. 1985 ; Prochaska and Goldstein 1991 ; Prochaska and Velicer 1997 ) as shown in Figure 2.1.1. Phases definition varies from behaviour to behavior across different applications and state of affairss whereas some include backsliding and expiration phase but frequently omitted.

Figure 2.1.1: Transtheoretical theoretical account – phases of alteration
An illustration of the Transtheoretical Model/Stages of Change.

Beginning: ( Prochaska and DiClemente 1982 )

Adequacy of the TTM
TTM suggest that motion through the phases is non ever linear that chance of forward motion is greater than the backward phase patterned advance, and likewise chance of next phase advancement is greater that two or three phase promotion which make it closer to existent behaviour in public manner pick in comparing with private manner ( Martin, Velicer and Fava 1996 ) .

Traditional intercessions often assume that users are ready for instant and lasting behaviour alteration ; nevertheless, TTM assumes that different persons are on different phases of alterations with their past experience or cognition, and appropriate measurings are hence developed consequently to impact everyone efficaciously ( Prochaska and Velicer 1997 ) .

TTM consequence in big keeping rate because it is designed to fit the specific demands of the persons which are non normally done in the traditional attacks ( Stewart, Hays and Ware Jr 1988 ) , hence, traditional attacks will pretermit most of the users when intercessions like smarter picks etc. will be made.

TTM gives delicate steps of advancement, action oriented theories use a individual step of result and any advancement which does n’t make full the standard is dropped out. Compare Different Research Methodologies for Health. Whereas, TTM include set of steps sensitive to full scope of perceptive and behavioural alterations which distinguishes and back up smaller stairss which is important for the users with self-efficacy in all available picks ( Fava, Velicer and Prochaska 1995 ) .

Phases of alterations makes possible to analyze the form of passage and to grok which intercession was more effectual with persons in one phase and non with persons in alternate phase.

TTM follows the rule of enlisting mechanism and efficaciousness that persons has to unclutter the phases measure by measure to make the concluding phase of care or expiration ( Bandura 1977 ) .

Issues with TTM
TTM theoretical account is good for chronic or habit-forming behaviours, and unable to explicate the sudden alterations and response to little prompts hence wo n’t be really effectual for short term steps.

Model is affected by personal and situational factors such as dependence, so it ca n’t be applied consecutive off to all assorted general public holding diversified features.

Boundaries between the phases are merely arbitrary lines and statements that x % of the users are on readying phase etc. which has small utile significance ( Sutton 2002 )

TTM assumes that users make coherent and stable programs. It is really rare that user set a specific day of the month or clip for alteration, purposes about alteration appeared to be wholly obscure ; largely surveies found that most users who modified their behaviour did n’t travel through phase of planning or readying at all, like cut down coach menu will hold sudden alteration in average displacement ( Hughes et al. 2005 ) .

Stages definitions of embodies assorted sorts of concepts that do non suit together coherently like past experiences with assorted manners, clip since alteration of manner of travel and purpose ( Etter and Sutton 2002 ) .

TTM focal point on witting determination devising & A ; planning procedures but neglects the punishments and wagess, and associatory acquisition in emerging wonts that are difficult to interrupt ( Baumeister, Heatherton and Tice 1994 ; Salamone et Al. 2003 ) . Unwholesome wont patterns become semi-automated through recurrent recompense and punishment ( Robinson and Berridge 2008 ) .

Sometime theoretical account ‘ anticipation are beyond common sense, like, an person who is be aftering and fixing for altering his behaviour has more opportunities to travel to maintenance phase whereas theoretical account predicts user who is in the pre-contemplation phase to make the care and expiration ( Hernandezaˆ?Avila, Burleson and Kranzler 1998 ) .

Traveling an person from pre-contemplation phase to contemplation phase is of no proved value. Furthermore, a inquiry is asked from the persons at pre-contemplation phase about the intercession, in dependence they might non react nevertheless persons may react favourably to new auspicious behaviour showing the options ( Zwar and Richmond 2002 ) . Compare Different Research Methodologies for Health.

There are 10 procedures of alterations that are covert and open when a user tried to alter its behaviour in TTM ; these are really hard to mensurate and analyse based on proved value land.

Questionnaires or algorithms used to delegate people to different phases have non been standardized, through empirical observation evaluated or validated ( Sutton 2002 ; Adams and White 2005 ) .

Purpose to alter the behaviour is the good forecaster but the past behaviour is the better forecaster of the future behaviour.

Need of Integration
Sustainability is the major focal point of all conveyance policies or schemes in the current times due many direct or indirect grounds like, advancing the development based on auto paradigm for decennaries since industrial revolution resulted in tremendous addition in figure of autos and urban conurbation in major developed and some underdeveloped states. Soon, developed states are acute to switch the user behaviour toward more compact dense development and usage of green manners like walking & A ; cycling, or assorted public conveyance picks to cut down the major issue of traffic congestion resulted in utmost auto usage.

Many attempts have been made around the universe, but no evident success has been achieved in the average displacement from auto to green manners, because policies and schemes ; which were developed to accomplish the major travel behaviour alteration were non decently evaluated utilizing cognitive or psychological scientific discipline which helps in giving the reply to oppugn “ why ” people chose the different manners, and how they come to a behaviour which is non easy to alter. Mobility paradigm designed to reply this inquiry by utilizing external factors or reactions of users by explicating the effects of societal factors and disregarding the psychological factors, which is the major hinderance in its full effectivity.

Transport contrivers failed to understand the users ; which have the polar place in the whole system, needed to be understood first alternatively of randomly using schemes and so measuring the external consequences. Alternatively study the behaviour of the users, and so develop the policies or schemes consequently to impact the overall societal civilization, because single users jointly make society and their behavior amass make the overall form in society. This caused the existent demand of integrating of these two subjects, where, societal psychological science helps in understanding the user behaviour to develop intercessions that could efficaciously be directed to impact the user.

Objective of planing policy step is to cut down the auto usage to increase usage of green manners like public conveyance, walk and cycling. Compare Different Research Methodologies for Health.Decrease in auto usage will do major displacement to environment friendly executable options which achieve many aims like ; reduces the figure of autos on route, alleviate traffic congestion, cut down the auto ownership rate, and long term behaviour alteration toward stable form of sustainability.

TPB theoretical account will be integrated with ‘Mobility ‘ paradigm which will impact the policy measures to be designed in flow where, foremost, TPB theoretical account will be used to understand implicit in current user behaviour, 2nd, policies steps will be designed concentrating the findings of first phase, 3rd, questionnaires will be modified consequently, and another investigation will be done based on the policy measures utilizing TPB, 4th, policy step will be modified once more over the determination, eventually, policies should be implemented and effectivity of the policy steps will be measured by measuring the before and after state of affairs utilizing TPB. This whole procedure is shown in Figure 3.2.1. This whole procedure will ensue in using the focussed step harmonizing to user demand and will poke at the users consciously to alter their behaviour.

Figure 3.2.1: Methodology for execution of integrating

Step-I – Current User Behavior Survey
Questionnaire based interview study should be conducted in the survey country to cognize the current form of travel behaviour by the bing conveyance users. This will non merely assist in understanding the behaviour of the persons based on purposes but besides designed to affectively analyze societal understanding why people travel. At the terminal, these are the persons who make society, hence, behaviour survey is disaggregate degree examining which could be aggregated to understand social form besides.

Following cardinal inquiries could be used as guideline for TPB application ;

Private Mode – Car

Significances of going by auto

Positive or negative facets of the significances

Percepts about outlooks of important others

Motivations to follow with the sensed outlooks of the others

The grade of personal control or self-efficacy user holding over the current manner

Self-regulatory efficaciousness barriers like work, household, conditions, installations etc. Compare Different Research Methodologies for Health.

Control frequence means how frequently these barriers occurs

Same standards will be applied to other manners in inquiry which are as follows ;

Public Transport Mode – Bus



Following guidelines should be used to see mobility position in transporting out the study ;

Micro or macro flat societal constructions ( persons or societal constructions and procedures )

Focus on persons and little groupings

Families, households, societal webs

Activities pattern & amp ; distribution

Sequences and mutualities of activities and competences and restraints of clip and infinite

Social constructions

Moress, codifications, establishments and traditions which are the grounds for repetitive actions everyday

Specific inquiries will be designed under each guideline, and current travel behaviour of the users and their societal constructions can be practically visualized which will explicate efficaciously how and why user tend to go more by auto manner, and what is the significance of other manners by each user class.

Step-II – Design Policy Measures
Step-I will place three major facets of the user behaviour which are their belief, subjective norm, and command about all available manners. Mobility paradigm will efficaciously feed in to subjective norms of TPB other than specifying the societal constructions to understand user behaviour. This will assist in acknowledging the chief penchants of the users in all classs, and their immediate nudging points which can be affected easy and needed aims to be achieved. Possible intercessions in the signifier of policy steps will be designed based on the findings to suite the demand. Some of the proposed policy steps are as follows ;

Reduce the waiting clip for coach by increasing coach frequence

Provision of sole coach lane to cut down the mean travel clip in haste hours

Bettering walkability by supplying more pathwaies, verdure

Development of commercial centres, and other public installations in the locality to advance walk-to civilization

Using cordon pricing on auto users inside the metropolis centre

Provision of cycling lanes etc.

Step-III – Modified User Behavior Survey
Survey questionnaire will be designed by including all intercessions designed in Step-II following the guidelines designed in Step-I. Now study should be conducted, and microscopic analysis should be done to look into the user response based on the intercessions both on person and societal degree. This is needed to avoid do our policies more effectual and avoid hazard pickings of execution without much effectivity in the field.

Step-IV – Re-design Policy Measures
Through determination of Step-III policy steps designed in Step-II will be modified once more to run into the field consequences, and proper nudging instruments should be designed to efficaciously accomplish desired aims. Compare Different Research Methodologies for Health.

Step-V – Implementation & A ; Evaluation
Policy steps designed in Step-IV will be implemented in the field. Evaluation study of the enforced policy could be done in short term to long term attack by specifically planing the standards based on Step-I guidelins to efficaciously analyze the alteration in travel behaviour form in the survey country. This rating study should be controlled decently to avoid maximal possible immaterial factors.

Effectiveness of Strategy
Mobility paradigm is concerned with apprehension of inquiry “ why people travel ” by using the societal apprehension through external factors utilizing direct or indirect steps. This focal point on nudging of people through assorted external factors around them, nevertheless, the existent inquiry which needs to be answered which factors are really act uponing proportionately to every single user internally to impact their purposes which finally lead to user travel behaviour. Therefore, the above integrating of the these two subjects will take toward complete effectivity in understanding the implicit in concealed factors in user behaviour and consequence of external environment like societal factors which developed in a long term procedure. Compare Different Research Methodologies for Health.


Therefore, integrating of these theories has been dene in five major stairss. Understanding of the underlying travel behavioural purposes and external social factors are critical before planing and implementing any conveyance related policy or step to cut down the auto usage. Now, specifying policy based on these findings will be decently directed toward its true end and way alternatively of implementing based on some premises which were the old patterns.

Policy Measure – Car Decrease
These policy aims can be best met by using the above designed integrating construction, and specifying any policy step carefully based on the findings. There are big Numberss of policies which can be implemented to partly accomplish this aim but which policy will be more effectual and how it should be designed and implemented can merely be answered by understanding which are stakeholders who will be straight and indirectly impacted.

It ‘s non possible to plan the whole questionnaire based on any policy here because that need comprehensive information about the survey country in many waies, hence, guidelines has been developed in the Step-I of the scheme which can be used in any fortunes.

TTM Model Integration
Transtheoretical theoretical account can besides be integrated with mobility paradigm, but TPB will be most effectual. Why it would be more effectual it ‘s already explained in the above Section 1 & A ; 2 which lineations pros and cons of both theoretical accounts. The cardinal inquiry which needs to be answered and most critical in understanding travel behaviour is the sensed behavioural control that is how much user is holding self-efficacy on the intended behaviour ; which is major drawback in TTM theoretical account non to clearly reply this. Compare Different Research Methodologies for Health.