Causes Of Congenital Anomalies Essay

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Causes Of Congenital Anomalies Essay

List the possible causes of congenital anomalies. Describe the condition of prematurity and associated disorders: the causes and treatment

  1. List the possible causes of congenital anomalies. Describe the condition of prematurity and associated disorders: the causes and treatment. 2. Identify the predisposing factors of disease. Describe the ways in which pathogens may cause disease. Explain the inflammation response to disease. 3. TABLE 4.1: Example of Terms Relating to Research Problems Topic/focus Side effects of chemotherapy Research problem (Problem statement) Nausea and vomiting are common side effects among patients on chemotherapy, and interventions to date have been only moderately successful in reducing these effects. New interventions that can reduce or prevent these side effects need to be identified. Research questions are the specific queries researchers want to answer in addressing the problem. Research questions guide the types of data to collect in a study. Researchers who make predictions about answers to research questions pose hypotheses that can be tested.Causes Of Congenital Anomalies Essay. Many reports include a statement of purpose (or purpose statement), which summarizes the study goals. Researchers might also identify several research aims or objectives—the specific accomplishments they hope to achieve by conducting the study.

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The objectives include answering research questions or testing research hypotheses but may also encompass broader aims (e.g., developing an effective intervention). These terms are not always consistently defined in research methods textbooks, and differences among them are often subtle. Table 4.1 illustrates the terms as we define them. Research Problems and Paradigms Some research problems are better suited to qualitative versus quantitative methods. Quantitative studies usually focus on concepts that are fairly well developed, about which there is existing evidence, and for which reliable methods of measurement have been (or can be) developed. For example, a quantitative study might be undertaken to explore whether older people with chronic illness who continue working are less (or more) depressed than those who retire. There are relatively good measures of depression that would yield quantitative information about the level of depression in a sample of employed and retired chronically ill seniors. Qualitative studies are often undertaken because a researcher wants to develop a rich and context-bound understanding of a poorly understood phenomenon. Researchers sometimes initiate qualitative studies to heighten awareness and create a dialogue about a phenomenon. Qualitative methods would not be well suited to comparing levels of depression among employed and retired seniors, but they would be ideal for exploring, for example, the meaning or experience of depression among chronically ill retirees. Thus, the nature of the research question is linked to paradigms and to research traditions within paradigms. Causes Of Congenital Anomalies Essay. Sources of Research Problems Where do ideas for research problems come from? At a basic level, research topics originate with researchers’ interests. Because research is a time-consuming enterprise, curiosity about and interest in a topic are essential. Research reports rarely indicate the source of researchers’ inspiration, but a variety of explicit sources can fuel their interest, including the following: Clinical experience. Nurses’ everyday clinical experience is a rich source of ideas for research topics. Immediate problems that need a solution—analogous to problemfocused triggers discussed in Chapter 2—may generate enthusiasm, and they have high potential for clinical relevance. Quality improvement efforts. Important clinical questions sometimes emerge in the context of findings from quality improvement studies. Personal involvement on a quality improvement team can sometimes lead to ideas for a study. Nursing literature. Ideas for studies often come from reading the nursing literature. Research articles may suggest problems indirectly by stimulating the reader’s curiosity and directly by noting needed research. Familiarity with existing research or with emerging clinical issues is an important route to developing a research topic. Social issues. Topics are sometimes suggested by global social or political issues of relevance to the health care community. For example, the feminist movement raised questions about such topics as gender equity in health care. Public awareness about health disparities has led to research on health care access and culturally sensitive interventions. Theories. Theories from nursing and other disciplines sometimes suggest a research problem. Researchers ask, “If this theory is correct, what would I predict about people’s behaviors, states, or feelings?” The predictions can then be tested through research. Ideas from external sources. External sources and direct suggestions can sometimes provide the impetus for a research idea. For example, ideas for studies may emerge by reviewing a funding agency’s research priorities or from brainstorming with other nurses. Additionally, researchers who have developed a program of research on a topic area may get inspiration for “next steps” from their own findings or from a discussion of those findings with others. Causes Of Congenital Anomalies Essay.

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Birth defects, congenital abnormalities are terms used to describe developmental defects that are present at birth. There are a lot of genetic and environmental interactions in the complex transition from a fertilised ovum to a fully formed human being. The stage of development that the interactions are affected influences the type of birth defects. Birth defect causes can be divided into two types, genetic and environmental causes. There are also birth defects which are caused due to multifactorial inheritance (George, 2007). Genetic causes of birth defects It has been estimated that 25% of all birth defects are caused due to genetic factors and out of these 85% causes are known (Brent, 2004).…show more content…
There also occur chromosomal rearrangements which are of different types, such as translocation, inversions and insertions. Translocations represent the exchange of material between two non-homologous chromosomes. Chromosomal re-arrangements can be described as balanced or unbalanced. In balanced re-arrangements chromosome materials which have been lost or gained does not appear in the analysis under light microscope whereas in unbalanced re-arrangements chromosomes are either lost or gained which results in chromosomal imbalance. Causes Of Congenital Anomalies Essay. This type of balanced or unbalanced re-arrangements is associated with phenotypic abnormality like birth defects (Brent, 2004). Single gene mutations They account for 6% of birth defects and they represent malformations and affect multiple systems (Young, 2005). It is important to study the inheritance pattern of these birth defects to give the families accurate genetic advice. Autosomal dominant disorder is caused due to mutations in one allele of an autosomal gene whereas in the autosomal recessive disorder mutation happens in both the allele of an autosomal gene. X-linked recessive disorder is caused due to the mutation in the genes on the X chromosome. Males are more frequently affected as they only have one normal copy of the X-linked gene which becomes mutated unlike in females. X-linked dominant disorder is caused due to mutations in the X-chromosome . Causes Of Congenital Anomalies Essay.