Bladder Cancer Therapy

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Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay

Bladder Cancer Essay, Research Paper

Bladder Cancer

Cancer is a group of many different diseases that have some important things in common. They all affect cells, the body?s basic unit of life. To understand different types of cancer, such as Bladder Cancer , it is helpful to know about normal cells and what happens when they become cancerous.Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay

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The body is made up of many types of cells. Normally, cells grow and divide to produce more cells only when the body needs them. This orderly process helps keep the body healthy. Sometimes cells keep dividing when new cells are not needed. These cells form a mass of extra tissue, called a growth or tumor. Tumors can be benign or malignant.

 Benign tumors are not cancer. They often can be removed and, in most cases they do not come back. Cells in benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body. Most important, benign tumors are rarely a threat to life.

 Malignant tumors are cancer. Cells in malignant tumors are abnormal and divide without control or order. These cancer cells can invade and destroy the tissues around them. Also, cancer cells can break away from a malignant tumor and enter the blood stream or the lymphatic system. This process is the way cancer spreads from the original (primary) tumor to form new tumors in other parts of the body. The spread of cancer is called metastasis.

Signs and symptoms

Bladder cancer often doesn?t produce any signs or symptoms in its early stages. The first warning sign is usually blood in your urine (hematuria). The blood may show up on a urine test or your urine may appear reddish or darker than normal. You may also notice a change in bladder habits- having to urinate more often or feeling like you need to urinate but can?t.Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay

When symptoms occur, they are not sure signs of bladder cancer. They may also be caused by infections, benign tumors, bladder stones, or other problems. Only a doctor can make a diagnosis. People with symptoms like these generally see their family doctor or a urologist, a doctor who specializes in diseases of the urinary system. It is important to see a doctor so that any illness can be diagnosed and treated as early as possible.

Diagnosis and Staging

To find the cause of symptoms, the doctor asks about the patient?s medical history and does a physical exam. The physical may include a rectal or vaginal exam that allows the doctor to check for tumors that can be felt. In addition, urine samples are sent to the laboratory for testing to check for blood and cancer cells.Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay

The doctor may use an instrument to look directly into the bladder, a procedure called cystoscopy. This procedure may be done with general or local anesthesia. The doctor inserts a thin, lighted tube called a cystoscope into the bladder through the urethra to examine the lining of the bladder. The doctor can remove samples of tissues through this tube. The sample is then examined by a pathologist. The removal of tissue to look for cancer cells is called a biopsy. In many cases, performing a biopsy is the only sure way to tell whether cancer is present. If the entire cancer is removed during the biopsy, bladder cancer can be diagnosed and treated in a single procedure.

Once bladder cancer is diagnosed, the doctor will want to learn the grade of the cancer and the stage, or extent of the disease. Grade is important because it tells how closely the cancer resembles normal tissue and suggests how fast the cancer is likely to grow. Low-grade cancers more closely resemble normal tissue and are likely to grow and spread more slowly than high-grade cancers.

Staging is a careful attempt to find out whether the cancer has spread and, if so, what parts of the body are affected. The stage of bladder cancer may be determined at the time of diagnosis, or it may be necessary to perform additional tests. Such tests may include imaging tests, CT scan, MRI, sonogram, IVP, bone scan, or chest x-ray.Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay

Cause of the disease (Etiology)

Cancer of the bladder is the fourth most common cancer among men and the ninth most common cancer among women. About 40,000 men and 15,000 women will develop bladder cancer this year in the United States. There will be 250,00 new cases of bladder cancer world wide. Bladder cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer and the seventh leading cause of cancer death. Cancer of the bladder may occur at any age, but it usually strikes those over 50 years old. What triggers this cancer isn?t well understood. In cases, it occurs in people without known risk factors. The risk factors can include the following. Smoking- Some cancer causing chemicals in tobacco smoke can collect in your urine, where they become concentrated and damage your bladder lining. Smoking is the leading cause of bladder cancer. Industrial chemicals- Chemicals used by makers of dyes, rubber, leather, textiles and paint products have been associated with increased bladder cancer risk. Chronic bladder inflammation- Chronic urinary infections or inflammations may increase your risk for a certain form of bladder cancer. But these conditions alone aren?t believed to cause cancer. Researchers also aren?t certain why the incidence of bladder cancer is increasing. Some ways to prevent this disease are, if you use tobacco, stop. If you work with chemicals, follow all safety regulations. In addition, if you notice blood in your urine or it shows up on a urine test, be persistent in finding the cause.Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay

Treatments

Treatment for bladder cancer depends on the stage of the disease (particularly if, or how deeply, the cancer has invaded the bladder wall), the grade of the cancer, the patient?s general health, and other factors. People with bladder cancer are often treated by a team of specialists, which may include a urologist, oncologist, and radiation oncologist. The doctors develop a treatment plan to fit each patient?s needs. Depending on its stage and grade, bladder cancer may be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy,and immunotherapy.

 Surgery- For superficial cancer, surgery to remove the cancer is performed through a cystoscope. The cancer may be cut away, burned or destroyed with a high-energy laser. More advanced cancer requires traditional surgery through an incision in your abdomen. Part of the bladder may be removed.

 Radiation therapy- Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells. Radiation is also sometimes used to shrink a tumor prior to surgery, or together in chemotherapy in place of surgery.Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay

 Chemotherapy- A combination of medications is used to kill the cancer. Chemotherapy may be used as a precautionary measure after surgery to ensure all of the cancer has been destroyed. It?s also used to control more advanced cancer that?s spread beyond the bladder.

 Immunotherapy- This involves placing bacterial antigens into your body through a cystoscope. As your body?s immune system responds to the antigens, it attacks and kills cancer cells at the same time.

Follow up care

Follow up depends on the stage and type of disease that is being treated. For patients with superficial bladder cancers that are removed with telescopic surgery, urinalysis and cystoscopy should be done on a regular basis. Usually every three to four months for the first year and then less often, but at least once a year. Based on the results of cystoscopy and cytology, further tests may be ordered.Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay

For patients after total cystectomy for advanced disease, frequent follow-up exams are needed to see if the disease has recurred or spread to other parts of the body. These exams should be done every three to six months during the first three years after treatment. Most bladder cancers that recur do so during the first three years. Patients whose bladders have been removed will be examined to see if the rest of the urinary system is disease free and if the urinary diversion is working properly.

Prognosis

The outlook for patients for early-stage bladder cancer that has not invaded the bladder wall is very good. About 90% of those patients live for five or more years with localized diagnosis and treatment. For patients whose cancer has spread to areas near the bladder, the 5 year survival rate is 45%. For those with advanced disease that has spread far from the bladder, the 5 year survival rate is 10%.

Research advances in detection, treatment, rehabilitation, and pain control have improved the outlook and quality of life for people with bladder cancer. By using a combination of therapies, doctors can treat some bladder cancers without removing the patient?s bladder. However, when cystectomy is necessary, new surgical techniques allow doctors to create new ways of storing and passing urine, which improves patient?s recovery and long-term comfort. Researchers are also conducting studies to learn more about what causes the development of bladder cancer. Although there is still much more work to be done, there are many reasons to be optimistic about the future.Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay

When a person hears the word, cancer, a sickening feeling comes over them. Cancer is the second cause of death in the United States. I’m sure everyone has known someone who has had cancer before, or may have even experienced it themselves. This illness has taken many lives but there has been an abundance amount of people that have survived and currently living cancer free lives. As of 2010, there has been approximately 13,028,000 cases of cancer of all types. This number includes the 6,079,000 cases of males and 6,949,000 cases found in females . This number is called cancer prevalence. Cancer prevalence is the number of living people diagnosed with cancer; past and present. Two cancers have caught my attention. Those are Urinary Bladder Cancer and Stomach Cancer. The cancer prevalence for urinary bladder cancer is 564,000 cases, 420,000 in males and 144,000 cases in females. Stomach cancer has had 72,000 cases, 41,000 in males and 31,000 cases in females.Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay
According to Medical News Today, Bladder cancer, or cancer of the bladder, is cancer that forms in the tissues of the bladder. The bladder is an organ that stores urine. The majority of bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas – the cancer starts in cells of the inner-lining of the bladder. Cancer that starts in thin, flat cells of the bladder are also possible; this type is called squamous cell carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma is also possible – this type of cancer begins in the cells that make and release mucus and other fluids . There are four procedures used to figure out how the cancer has spread through the system when discovering a patient has bladder cancer. Those procedures are a CT scan (CAT scan), MRI, Chest x-ray, or a bone scan.

Good nutrition is important for cancer patients.
Nutrition is a process in which food is taken in and used by the body for growth, to keep the body healthy, and to replace tissue. Good nutrition is important for good health. Eating the right kinds of foods before, during, and after cancer treatment can help the patient feel better and stay stronger. A healthy diet includes eating and drinking enough of the foods and liquids that have important nutrients (vitamins, minerals, protein, carbohydrates, fat, and water) the body needs.Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay

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Healthy eating habits are important during and after cancer treatment.
Nutrition therapy is used to help cancer patients keep a healthy body weight, maintain strength, keep body tissue healthy, and decrease side effects both during and after treatment.

A registered dietitian is an important part of the healthcare team.
A registered dietitian (or nutritionist) is a part of the team of health professionals that help with cancer treatment and recovery. A dietitian will work with patients, their families, and the rest of the medical team to manage the patient’s diet during and after cancer treatment.

Cancer and cancer treatments may cause side effects that affect nutrition.
For many patients, the effects of cancer and cancer treatments make it hard to eat well. Cancer treatments that affect nutrition include:Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay

Chemotherapy.
Hormone therapy.
Radiation therapy.
Surgery.
Immunotherapy.
Stem cell transplant.
When the head, neck, esophagus, stomach, intestines, pancreas, or liver are affected by the cancer treatment, it is hard to take in enough nutrients to stay healthy.

Cancer and cancer treatments may cause malnutrition.
Cancer and cancer treatments may affect taste, smell, appetite, and the ability to eat enough food or absorb the nutrients from food. This can cause malnutrition, which is a condition caused by a lack of key nutrients. Alcohol abuse and obesity may increase the risk of malnutrition.

Malnutrition can cause the patient to be weak, tired, and unable to fight infection or finish cancer treatment. Malnutrition may be made worse if the cancer grows or spreads.Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay

Eating the right amount of protein and calories is important for healing, fighting infection, and having enough energy.

Anorexia and cachexia are common causes of malnutrition in cancer patients.
Anorexia is the loss of appetite or desire to eat. It is a common symptom in patients with cancer. Anorexia may occur early in the disease or later, if the cancer grows or spreads. Some patients already have anorexia when they are diagnosed with cancer. Most patients who have advanced cancer will have anorexia. Anorexia is the most common cause of malnutrition in cancer patients.

Cachexia is a condition marked by weakness, weight loss, and fat and muscle loss. It is common in patients with tumors that affect eating and digestion. It can occur in cancer patients who are eating well, but are not storing fat and muscle because of tumor growth.Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay

Some tumors change the way the body uses certain nutrients. The body’s use of protein, carbohydrates, and fat may be affected, especially by tumors of the stomach, intestines, or head and neck. A patient may seem to be eating enough, but the body may not be able to absorb all the nutrients from the food.

Cancer patients may have anorexia and cachexia at the same time.

Effects of Cancer Treatment on Nutrition
KEY POINTS
Chemotherapy and Hormone Therapy
Chemotherapy and hormone therapy affect nutrition in different ways.
Chemotherapy and hormone therapy cause different nutrition problems.
Radiation Therapy
Radiation therapy kills cells in the treatment area.
Radiation therapy may affect nutrition.Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay
Surgery
Surgery increases the body’s need for nutrients and energy.
Surgery to the head, neck, esophagus, stomach, or intestines may affect nutrition.
Immunotherapy
Immunotherapy may affect nutrition.
Stem Cell Transplant
Patients who receive a stem cell transplant have special nutrition needs.
See the Treatment of Symptoms section for more information on side effects from treatment.

Chemotherapy and Hormone Therapy
Chemotherapy and hormone therapy affect nutrition in different ways.
Chemotherapy affects cells all through the body. Chemotherapy uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Healthy cells that normally grow and divide quickly may also be killed. These include cells in the mouth and digestive tract.

Hormone therapy adds, blocks, or removes hormones. It may be used to slow or stop the growth of certain cancers. Some types of hormone therapy may cause weight gain.

Chemotherapy and hormone therapy cause different nutrition problems.
Side effects from chemotherapy may cause problems with eating and digestion. When more than one chemotherapy drug is given, each drug may cause different side effects or when drugs cause the same side effect, the side effect may be more severe.Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay

The following side effects are common:

Loss of appetite.
Nausea.
Vomiting.
Dry mouth.
Sores in the mouth or throat.
Changes in the way food tastes.
Trouble swallowing.
Feeling full after eating a small amount of food.
Constipation.
Diarrhea.
Patients receiving hormone therapy may need changes in their diet to prevent weight gain.

Radiation Therapy
Radiation therapy kills cells in the treatment area.
Radiation therapy kills cancer cells and healthy cells in the treatment area. How severe the side effects are depends on the following:

The part of the body that is treated.
The total dose of radiation and how it is given.
Radiation therapy may affect nutrition.
Radiation therapy to any part of the digestive system has side effects that cause nutrition problems. Most of the side effects begin two to three weeks after radiation therapy begins and go away a few weeks after it is finished. Some side effects can continue for months or years after treatment ends.Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay

The following are some of the more common side effects:

For radiation therapy to the brain or head and neck
Loss of appetite.
Nausea.
Vomiting.
Dry mouth or thick saliva. Medication may be given to treat a dry mouth.
Sore mouth and gums.
Changes in the way food tastes.
Trouble swallowing.
Pain when swallowing.
Being unable to fully open the mouth.
For radiation therapy to the chest
Loss of appetite.
Nausea.
Vomiting.
Trouble swallowing.
Pain when swallowing.
Choking or breathing problems caused by changes in the upper esophagus.
For radiation therapy to the abdomen, pelvis, or rectum
Nausea.
Vomiting.
Bowel obstruction.
Colitis.
Diarrhea.
Radiation therapy may also cause tiredness, which can lead to a decrease in appetite.

Surgery
Surgery increases the body’s need for nutrients and energy.
The body needs extra energy and nutrients to heal wounds, fight infection, and recover from surgery. If the patient is malnourished before surgery, it may cause problems during recovery, such as poor healing or infection. For these patients, nutrition care may begin before surgery.Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay

Surgery to the head, neck, esophagus, stomach, or intestines may affect nutrition.
Most cancer patients are treated with surgery. Surgery that removes all or part of certain organs can affect a patient’s ability to eat and digest food.

The following are nutrition problems caused by surgery:

Loss of appetite.
Trouble chewing.
Trouble swallowing.
Feeling full after eating a small amount of food.
Immunotherapy
Immunotherapy may affect nutrition.
The side effects of immunotherapy are different for each patient and the type of immunotherapy drug given.

The following nutrition problems are common:

Tiredness.
Fever.
Nausea.
Vomiting.
Diarrhea.
Stem Cell Transplant
Patients who receive a stem cell transplant have special nutrition needs.
Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and other medicines used before or during a stem cell transplant may cause side effects that keep a patient from eating and digesting food as usual.Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay

Common side effects include the following:

Mouth and throat sores.
Diarrhea.
Patients who receive a stem cell transplant have a high risk of infection. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy given before the transplant decrease the number of white blood cells, which fight infection. It is important that these patients learn about safe food handling and avoid foods that may cause infection.

After a stem cell transplant, patients are at risk for acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). GVHD may affect the gastrointestinal tract or liver and change the patient’s ability to eat or absorb nutrients from food.

Nutrition Assessment in Cancer Care
KEY POINTS
The healthcare team may ask questions about diet and weight history.
Counseling and diet changes are made to improve the patient’s nutrition.
The goal of nutrition therapy for patients who have advanced cancer depends on the overall plan of care.Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay

BLADDER CANCER Bladder cancer is the growth of malignant cells in the urinary bladder. Most forms of bladder cancer start in the superficial layer of the transitional epithelium, and most often affect the transitional cells. It may also be called transitional cell carcinoma or even urothelial carcinoma. Urothelial carcinoma is also a term used for transitional cell cancer in the renal pelvis, ureters, and urethra. Bladder cancer is a relatively common disease. It is the fourth leading cancer among men (following prostate, lung, colorectal cancers), and the tenth leading cancer among women; occurring in men about three times more often than women. Like most types of cancer, bladder cancer usually involves epithelial cells, in…show more content…
Urine flow may be routed out of the body through a stoma, or a variety of surgeries have been developed to form artificial bladders from parts of the large or small intestine. In addition to surgery, radiation and chemotherapy may be used in the battle against bladder cancer. More than 70% of bladder cancer diagnoses are made when the cells affect only superficial layers of tissue. Of course, this is excellent news because the survival rate for cancers caught early is much better than for cancers caught in stage three or later. Even so, bladder cancer has an unusual habit of growing in several places at once, so although it may be possible to catch one or two tumors, any invisible third, fourth, and fifth tumors may not become symptomatic for another several months. This means that the reoccurrence rate for bladder cancer is surprisingly high; up to 80% percent of bladder cancer patients have at least one reoccurrence. The relation between bladder cancer and carcinogenic substances is one of the most clearly demonstrated links between environmental exposures and cancer. The good news is the bladder cancer is probably a completely preventable disease, if exposure to the carcinogenic substances is limited or eradicated. References Bladder Cancer. (2008). Retrieved 30 January, 2009, from Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay

BLADDER CANCER Bladder cancer is the growth of malignant cells in the urinary bladder. Most forms of bladder cancer start in the superficial layer of the transitional epithelium, and most often affect the transitional cells. It may also be called transitional cell carcinoma or even urothelial carcinoma. Urothelial carcinoma is also a term used for transitional cell cancer in the renal pelvis, ureters, and urethra. Bladder cancer is a relatively common disease. It is the fourth leading cancer among men (following prostate, lung, colorectal cancers), and the tenth leading cancer among women; occurring in men about three times more often than women.Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay
Urine flow may be routed out of the body through a stoma, or a variety of surgeries have been developed to form artificial bladders from parts of the large or small intestine. In addition to surgery, radiation and chemotherapy may be used in the battle against bladder cancer. More than 70% of bladder cancer diagnoses are made when the cells affect only superficial layers of tissue. Of course, this is excellent news because the survival rate for cancers caught early is much better than for cancers caught in stage three or later. Even so, bladder cancer has an unusual habit of growing in several places at once, so although it may be possible to catch one or two tumors, any invisible third, fourth, and fifth tumors may not become symptomatic for another several months. This means that the reoccurrence rate for bladder cancer is surprisingly high; up to 80% percent of bladder cancer patients have at least one reoccurrence. The relation between bladder cancer and carcinogenic substances is one of the most clearly demonstrated links between environmental exposures and cancer. The good news is the bladder cancer is probably a completely preventable disease, if exposure to the carcinogenic substances is limited or eradicated. References Bladder Cancer. (2008). Retrieved 30 January, 2009, from Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education Bladder Cancer Therapy Essay